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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants across the number of diseases in life course

From: Temporal trajectories of important diseases in the life course and premature mortality in the UK Biobank

  Number of diseases in life course among individuals who died during follow-up P valuea
0 (n=702) 1 (n=2406) 2 (n=4010) 3 (n=4934) 4 (n=4963) 5 (n=4545) ≥6 (n=9813)
Age (years) 60 (53–65) 61 (54–65) 62 (56–66) 62 (57–66) 63 (59–67) 64 (60–67) 64 (60–67) <0.0001
Gender <0.0001
 Female 213 (30.3) 1080 (44.9) 1833 (45.7) 2104 (42.6) 1903 (38.3) 1724 (37.9) 3718 (37.9)  
 Male 489 (69.7) 1326 (55.1) 2177 (54.3) 2830 (57.4) 3060 (61.7) 2821 (62.1) 6095 (62.1)  
Ethnicity <0.0001
 Whites 676 (96.3) 2314 (96.2) 3900 (97.3) 4772 (96.7) 4782 (96.4) 4353 (95.8) 9285 (94.6)  
 Non-whites 24 (3.4) 72 (3.0) 94 (2.3) 135 (2.7) 149 (3.0) 153 (3.4) 445 (4.5)  
 Unknown 2 (0.3) 20 (0.8) 16 (0.4) 27 (0.5) 32 (0.6) 39 (0.9) 83 (0.8)  
Education <0.0001
 0–5 years 119 (17.0) 485 (20.2) 845 (21.1) 1216 (24.6) 1342 (27.0) 1420 (31.2) 3722 (37.9)  
 6–12 years 338 (48.1) 1078 (44.8) 1889 (47.1) 2236 (45.3) 2262 (45.6) 2039 (44.9) 4141 (42.2)  
 ≥13 years 233 (33.2) 770 (32.0) 1185 (29.6) 1359 (27.5) 1213 (24.4) 956 (21.0) 1630 (16.6)  
 Missing 12 (1.7) 73 (3.0) 91 (2.3) 123 (2.5) 146 (2.9) 130 (2.9) 320 (3.3)  
Household income (pounds) <0.0001
 <18,000 147 (20.9) 553 (23.0) 992 (24.7) 1365 (27.7) 1545 (31.1) 1543 (33.9) 4045 (41.2)  
 18,000–30,999 163 (23.2) 556 (23.1) 992 (24.7) 1164 (23.6) 1204 (24.3) 1115 (24.5) 2087 (21.3)  
 31,000–51,999 158 (22.5) 476 (19.8) 761 (19.0) 861 (17.5) 826 (16.6) 663 (14.6) 1037 (10.6)  
 52,000–100,000 107 (15.2) 311 (12.9) 498 (12.4) 541 (11.0) 427 (8.6) 311 (6.8) 438 (4.5)  
 >100,000 33 (4.7) 109 (4.5) 110 (2.7) 126 (2.6) 95 (1.9) 60 (1.3) 82 (0.8)  
 Unknown 23 (3.3) 103 (4.3) 191 (4.8) 250 (5.1) 263 (5.3) 261 (5.7) 752 (7.7)  
 Not answered 71 (10.1) 298 (12.4) 466 (11.6) 627 (12.7) 603 (12.1) 592 (13.0) 1372 (14.0)  
Physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 2651.9 (1050.0–3266.0) 2649.7 (1032.0 3146.0) 2532.5 (1004.0–2970.0) 2586.0 (988.5–2946.0) 2651.9 (975.0–2844.0) 2478.0 (826.5–2758.0) 2186.0 (693.0–2651.9) <0.0001
Diet qualityb <0.0001
 Low 292 (41.6) 1005 (41.8) 1702 (42.4) 2180 (44.2) 2189 (44.1) 2129 (46.8) 4905 (50.0)  
 High 410 (58.4) 1401 (58.2) 2308 (57.6) 2754 (55.8) 2774 (55.9) 2416 (53.2) 4908 (50.0)  
Alcohol consumption <0.0001
 Never 21 (3.0) 87 (3.6) 153 (3.8) 220 (4.5) 207 (4.2) 210 (4.6) 644 (6.6)  
 Previous 20 (2.8) 78 (3.2) 174 (4.3) 230 (4.7) 276 (5.6) 305 (6.7) 951 (9.7)  
 Current 659 (93.9) 2234 (92.9) 3677 (91.7) 4464 (90.5) 4465 (90.0) 4003 (88.1) 8161 (83.2)  
 Missing 2 (0.3) 7 (0.3) 6 (0.1) 20 (0.4) 15 (0.3) 27 (0.6) 57 (0.6)  
Smoking <0.0001
 Never 339 (48.3) 1197 (49.8) 1837 (45.8) 2091 (42.4) 1936 (39.0) 1617 (35.6) 2958 (30.1)  
 Former 224 (31.9) 783 (32.5) 1486 (37.1) 1910 (38.7) 2082 (42.0) 2017 (44.4) 4554 (46.4)  
 Current 135 (19.2) 411 (17.1) 666 (16.6) 890 (18.0) 910 (18.3) 866 (19.1) 2193 (22.3)  
 Missing 4 (0.6) 15 (0.6) 21 (0.5) 43 (0.9) 35 (0.7) 45 (1.0) 108 (1.1)  
Sleep duration (hours) 0.0385
 <7 170 (24.2) 545 (22.7) 949 (23.7) 1218 (24.7) 1249 (25.2) 1203 (26.5) 2859 (29.1)  
 7–9 521 (74.2) 1792 (74.5) 2944 (73.4) 3519 (71.3) 3506 (70.6) 3106 (68.3) 6148 (62.7)  
 >9 8 (1.1) 48 (2.0) 97 (2.4) 144 (2.9) 162 (3.3) 181 (4.0) 641 (6.5)  
 Missing 3 (0.4) 21 (0.9) 20 (0.5) 53 (1.1) 46 (0.9) 55 (1.2) 165 (1.7)  
BMI (kg/m2) 26.84±4.30 26.57±4.28 26.91±4.48 27.32±4.76 27.86±5.03 28.41±5.07 29.48±5.62 <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 6.01±1.02 5.85±1.06 5.81±1.09 5.70±1.14 5.51±1.19 5.37±1.21 5.13±1.23 <0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.42±0.35 1.44±0.36 1.45±0.37 1.43±0.37 1.39±0.36 1.37±0.36 1.33±0.37 <0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.83±0.78 3.69±0.79 3.65±0.82 3.57±0.86 3.44±0.89 3.33±0.90 3.14±0.90 <0.0001
Triglycerides 1.64 (1.13–2.18) 1.59 (1.09–2.09) 1.59 (1.11–2.11) 1.62 (1.12–2.12) 1.66 (1.16–2.20) 1.75 (1.21–2.29) 1.75 (1.25–2.37) <0.0001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 35.51±3.90 35.73±4.99 36.12±5.44 36.80±6.85 37.74±7.83 38.81±9.54 41.56±11.74 <0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 83.9±10.8 82.3±9.6 82.3±10.0 82.7±10.3 82.6±10.3 82.8±10.2 81.6±10.6 <0.0001
SBP (mmHg) 142.7±19.6 138.5±17.8 139.5±18.7 141.1±18.9 142.2±19.0 143.4±19.4 142.8±19.6 <0.0001
Genetic risk scorec 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 0.49 (0.46–0.53) 0.50 (0.46–0.53) 0.49 (0.46–0.53) 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 0.49 (0.46–0.53) 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 0.0435
Cause of mortality <0.0001
 Cancer 103 (14.7) 1284 (53.4) 2367 (59.0) 2965 (60.1) 2875 (57.9) 2376 (52.3) 4267 (43.5)  
 CVD 318 (45.3) 560 (23.3) 776 (19.4) 921 (18.7) 927 (18.7) 985 (21.7) 2215 (22.6)  
 External reason 71 (10.1) 90 (3.7) 117 (2.9) 88 (1.8) 83 (1.7) 66 (1.5) 110 (1.1)  
 Others 210 (29.9) 472 (19.6) 750 (18.7) 960 (19.5) 1078 (21.7) 1118 (24.6) 3221 (32.8)  
  1. Data are means ± standard deviations, medians (interquartile range), or N (%). BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardiovascular disease, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c Glycated haemoglobin, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MET Metabolic equivalent, SBP Systolic blood pressure
  2. aBaseline data were expressed as means ± standard deviations, medians (interquartile ranges), or frequency (percentage) according to the number of types of diseases. ANOVA analysis for normally distributed continuous variables, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for skewed continuous variables, and Chi-square test for categorical variables was used to examine the difference in baseline characteristics across the number of diseases in life-course.
  3. bDiet score was computed based on seven commonly eaten food groups following recommendations on dietary priorities for cardiometabolic health with higher score representing healthier diet. High diet quality was defined as diet score≥4.
  4. cThe genetic risk score (GRS) for longevity was compuated using 78 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.