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Table 1 Characteristics of participants during stool sample collection by quintiles of plant-based diet indexa

From: Gut microbiota signatures of long-term and short-term plant-based dietary pattern and cardiometabolic health: a prospective cohort study

  Long-term PDI (N = 3096) Short-term PDI (N = 3066)
Q1 (N = 737) Q3 (N = 506) Q5 (N = 596) Q1 (N = 638) Q3 (N = 665) Q5 (N = 520)
Age (year) 52.0 (11.4) 52.1 (13.1) 50.5 (13.1) 50.3 (11.6) 51.0 (12.2) 53.9 (13.1)
Sex, % of women 329 (45%) 267 (53%) 353 (59%) 231 (36%) 357 (54%) 334 (64%)
BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 (3.5) 24.2 (3.5) 24.5 (3.7) 23.9 (3.4) 23.8 (3.5) 24.6 (3.7)
Education level
 Middle school or lower 506 (69%) 328 (65%) 398 (67%) 384 (60%) 423 (64%) 383 (74%)
 High school or professional college 151 (20%) 112 (22%) 122 (20%) 172 (27%) 150 (23%) 89 (17%)
 University 80 (11%) 66 (13%) 76 (13%) 82 (13%) 92 (14%) 48 ( 9%)
Current smoking 256 (35%) 116 (23%) 149 (25%) 245 (38%) 175 (26%) 101 (19%)
Current alcohol drinking 251 (34%) 128 (25%) 161 (27%) 249 (39%) 182 (27%) 111 (21%)
Physical activity (MET•hours/week) 152.3 (155.0) 136.3 (135.0) 156.7 (158.3) 148.7 (145.6) 149.0 (159.2) 141.1 (142.6)
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 2186 (1190) 2183 (3475) 2174 (2441) 2585 (611) 1906 (533) 1404 (454)
Urbanizationb
 Low 243 (33%) 156 (31%) 238 (40%) 170 (27%) 217 (33%) 245 (47%)
 Middle 256 (35%) 183 (36%) 186 (31%) 241 (38%) 216 (32%) 140 (27%)
 High 238 (32%) 167 (33%) 172 (29%) 227 (36%) 232 (35%) 135 (26%)
Prevalent hypertension 86 (12%) 77 (15%) 93 (16%) 74 (12%) 82 (12%) 97 (19%)
Hypertension medicine use 69 (9%) 65 (13%) 76 (13%) 61 (10%) 69 (10%) 77 (15%)
Prevalent type 2 diabetes 78 (11%) 67 (13%) 67 (11%) 73 (11%) 73 (11%) 66 (13%)
Type 2 diabetes medicine use 14 (2%) 18 (4%) 14 (2%) 13 (2%) 16 (2%) 15 (3%)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.6 (1.6) 5.6 (1.8) 5.4 (1.3) 5.6 (1.8) 5.5 (1.4) 5.4 (1.4)
HbA1c (%) 5.7 (1.0) 5.8 (1.1) 5.7 (0.9) 5.8 (1.1) 5.7 (0.8) 5.8 (1.0)
Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 7.8 (7.8) 7.7 (6.9) 7.5 (6.5) 7.9 (8.8) 7.8 (7.9) 7.8 (6.9)
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.4) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3)
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.3 (0.9) 3.2 (0.9) 3.0 (0.9) 3.3 (1.0) 3.2 (0.9) 3.1 (0.9)
TC (mmol/L) 5.1 (1.0) 5.0 (1.1) 4.7 (1.0) 5.1 (1.1) 4.9 (1.0) 4.8 (1.0)
TG (mmol/L) 1.6 (1.2) 1.6 (1.2) 1.5 (1.0) 1.7 (1.2) 1.6 (1.0) 1.5 (1.1)
CRP (mg/L) 1.8 (3.5) 2.1 (3.7) 1.6 (3.0) 1.9 (3.6) 1.7 (2.7) 2.1 (4.2)
Current tea drinkingc 343 (47%) 239 (47%) 238 (40%) 331 (52%) 308 (46%) 182 (35%)
Current coffee drinkingc 55 (7%) 20 (4%) 65 (11%) 66 (10%) 59 ( 9%) 23 ( 4%)
hPDI 40.4 (5.0) 45.1 (5.0) 50.4 (4.7) 41.3 (4.1) 45.2 (4.2) 48.6 (3.7)
uPDI 47.1 (7.3) 44.7 (7.7) 43.3 (6.9) 46.0 (6.4) 44.6 (5.4) 44.8 (3.9)
Whole grains, servings/day 0.2 (0.7) 0.3 (1.0) 0.4 (0.6) 0.3 (0.9) 0.5 (0.9) 0.6 (1.1)
Fruits, servings/day 0.6 (0.6) 1.1 (1.3) 1.4 (1.2) 0.3 (0.6) 0.4 (0.7) 0.5 (0.7)
Vegetables, servings/day 2.6 (2.0) 3.0 (2.2) 3.5 (4.0) 2.7 (1.3) 2.8 (1.4) 3.3 (1.6)
Nuts, servings/day 0.5 (1.1) 0.9 (1.4) 1.4 (1.9) 3.1 (10.3) 3.7 (11.0) 3.4 (10.4)
Legumes, servings/day 0.9 (1.8) 1.1 (0.9) 1.8 (7.4) 0.6 (0.9) 0.6 (0.9) 0.9 (1.0)
Potatoes, servings/day 0.2 (0.3) 0.4 (0.6) 0.7 (0.6) 0.2 (0.4) 0.3 (0.4) 0.5 (0.6)
Vegetable oils, servings/day 2.2 (2.1) 3.0 (2.9) 3.1 (1.9) 1.4 (2.5) 1.8 (2.2) 2.3 (2.5)
Refined grains, servings/day 7.0 (2.3) 6.8 (4.5) 6.3 (2.3) 6.9 (2.7) 7.2 (2.9) 8.6 (3.0)
Beverages and fruit juices, servings/day 0.4 (1.2) 0.8 (1.9) 1.5 (5.9) 0.1 (0.5) 0.2 (2.1) 0.2 (1.4)
Sweets and desserts, servings/day 0.3 (0.5) 0.5 (0.7) 0.7 (0.9) 0.4 (1.7) 0.6 (1.7) 0.5 (1.2)
Dairy, servings/day 0.4 (0.9) 0.4 (0.7) 0.3 (0.7) 0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.2) 0.0 (0.1)
Eggs, servings/day 0.7 (0.5) 0.7 (0.6) 0.6 (0.6) 0.7 (0.6) 0.5 (0.5) 0.4 (0.5)
Fish or seafood, servings/day 0.8 (3.3) 0.5 (0.8) 0.4 (0.6) 0.8 (1.2) 0.5 (0.8) 0.2 (0.5)
Meat, servings/day 2.5 (1.6) 1.9 (1.2) 1.3 (0.9) 2.7 (1.6) 2.3 (1.6) 1.3 (1.5)
Animal oils, servings/day 0.8 (1.4) 0.4 (0.7) 0.2 (0.4) 1.0 (2.2) 0.5 (1.2) 0.3 (0.7)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hPDI Healthy plant-based diet index, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, PDI Plant-based diet index, Q Quintile, TC Total cholesterol, TG Total triglycerides, SD Standard deviation, uPDI unhealthy plant-based diet index
  2. aData are presented as mean (SD) for continuous measures, and n (%) for categorical measures. Plant-based dietary index, dietary intakes and total energy presented were calculated based on the FFQs, and 3-day 24-h dietary recalls for long-term diet and short-term diet, respectively. Dietary intake for each food group was adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method
  3. bUrbanization index, a 12-component scale based on community-level physical, social, cultural, and economic environments, was categorized as low (≤ 63), middle (63–84.3), and high (> 84.3) levels of urbanization
  4. cCurrent tea and coffee drinking status were estimated based on the FFQ information