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Table 1 Basic characteristics of participants by OA among U.S. adults, NHANES 1999–2016

From: Biological aging mediates the associations between urinary metals and osteoarthritis among U.S. adults

Characteristics Total (12,584) OA (1356) Non-OA (11,228) P value
Age, n (%)      < 0.001
 20–59 8981 (79.39) 457 (42.56) 8524 (84.01)  
  ≥ 60 3603 (20.60) 899 (57.44) 2704 (15.99)  
Sex, n (%)      < 0.001
 Male 6234 (48.89) 498 (36.51) 5736 (50.44)  
 Female 6350 (51.11) 858 (63.49) 5492 (49.56)  
Race/ethnicity, n (%)      < 0.001
 Mexican American 2270 (8.53) 105 (2.49) 2165 (9.30)  
 Other Hispanic 1059 (5.63) 99 (2.80) 960 (5.98)  
 Non-Hispanic White 5595 (68.30) 887 (84.21) 4708 (66.30)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 2540 (10.91) 193 (6.10) 2347 (11.51)  
 Other race/multiracial 1120 (6.63) 72 (4.40) 1048 (6.91)  
Education, n (%)     0.857
 Under high school 3263 (16.84) 327 (16.71) 2936 (16.86)  
 High school or equivalent 2895 (23.66) 317 (22.95) 2578 (23.75)  
 Above high school 6416 (59.50) 711 (60.35) 5705 (59.39)  
Marital status, n (%)      < 0.001
 Married/cohabiting 7725 (64.34) 780 (65.16) 6945 (64.23)  
 Widowed/divorced/separated 2401 (16.62) 464 (27.88) 1937 (15.20)  
 Never married 2368 (19.04) 105 (6.96) 2263 (20.56)  
Physical activity, n (%)      < 0.001
 Moderate 8239 (59.89) 1076 (75.85) 7163 (57.89)  
 Vigorous 4343 (40.11) 279 (24.15) 4064 (42.11)  
Drinking alcohol status, n (%)     0.001
 Never 8174 (76.31) 870 (71.12) 7304 (76.98)  
 Ever 3333 (23.69) 416 (28.85) 2917 (23.02)  
Family PIR 3.01 ± 0.03 3.12 ± 0.07 3.00 ± 2.93 0.013
BMI (kg/m2) 28.37 ± 0.10 30.66 ± 0.28 28.09 ± 0.10  < 0.001
Serum cotinine (ng/mL) 57.15 ± 1.86 50.0 ± 4.62 58.06 ± 1.99 0.036
Biological age (years) 44.92 ± 0.31 60.91 ± 0.65 43.24 ± 0.30  < 0.001
Phenotypic age (years) 40.17 ± 0.33 57.45 ± 0.67 38.34 ± 0.31  < 0.001
Telomere length 1.07 ± 0.01 0.95 ± 0.03 1.09 ± 0.01  < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables were presented as mean ± SE. Categorical variables were presented as n (%). NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, OA osteoarthritis, PIR the ratio of family income to poverty, BMI body mass index, SE standard error, n numbers of subjects; %, weighted percentage