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Table 1 Summary characteristics of studies (N = 59)

From: Costs of multimorbidity: a systematic review and meta-analyses

Study characteristic Articles n (%)
Type of study (N = 59)
 Cross-sectional 32 (54%)
 Cohort/longitudinal 26 (44%)
 Case-control 1 (2%)
World Bank classification (n = 59)
 High-income country 56 (95%)
 Middle-income country 3 (5%)
 Low-income country 0 (0)
Source of data (n = 59)*
 Insurance claim database 37 (63%)
 Hospital/medical database 19 (32%)
 Patient survey 20 (34%)
 Linked database 20 (34%)
 Other 6 (10%)
Type of costs included (n = 59)*
 Direct medical costs 58 (98%)
 Direct non-medical costs 2 (3%)
 Indirect costs 7 (12%)
Costing perspective (n = 59)*
 Public 48 (81%)
 Household/patient 12 (20%)
 Societal 8 (14%)
 Provider 1 (2%)
Number of disease combination sets from all studies* (n = 325)
 Included in narrative synthesis (research questions 1 and 4) 229 (70%)
 Included in country comparison (research question 2) 41 (13%)
 Included in meta-analyses (research question 3) 34 (10%)
Number of conditions in each disease combination set (n = 325)
 Two 282 (87%)
 More than two 43 (13%)
Frequently appeared in disease combination sets* (n = 325)
 Diabetes 96 (30%)
 Heart/vascular conditions 93 (29%)
 Mental health conditions 67 (21%)
 Hypertension 59 (18%)
 Respiratory conditions 52 (16%)
 Cancers 38 (12%)
Quality score Mean
 Cross-sectional studies (n = 32) 7.8 out of 10
 Cohort studies (n = 26) 7.9 out of 9
 Case-control studies (n = 1) 7.0 out of 9
  1. *Studies can belong to more than one category, meaning individual percentages at times do not sum to 100%