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Table 3 The age-specific association between gestational age and sleep disorder in preschoolers (n=114,311)

From: Associations between gestational age and childhood sleep: a national retrospective cohort study

  Sleep disorder (CSHQ>41)
N, % Crude OR (95% CI) p p* Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p p*
Yes No
Total 87,773, 76.78% 26,538, 23.22%       
 Very-preterm(<31W) 1932, 81.21% 447, 18.79% 1.322 (1.188, 1.47) <0.001 <0.001 1.287 (1.157, 1.433) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 1527, 80.67% 366, 19.33% 1.276 (1.135, 1.435) <0.001 <0.001 1.249 (1.110, 1.405) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 8049, 78.62% 2189, 21.38% 1.125 (1.065, 1.188) <0.001 <0.001 1.111 (1.052, 1.174) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 22,345, 76.58% 6834, 23.42% 0.97 (0.938, 1.002) 0.069 0.828 0.958 (0.927, 0.991) 0.012 0.014
 Full-term (39–40W) 44,126, 76.02% 13917, 23.98% Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 5390, 76.82% 1626, 23.18% 1.014 (0.953, 1.078) 0.663 0.663 0.976 (0.917, 1.039) 0.451 0.451
 Post-term (>41W) 4404, 79.17% 1159, 20.83% 1.162 (1.083, 1.247) <0.001 <0.001 1.139 (1.061, 1.222) <0.001 <0.001
3 years old 29,658, 78.40% 8165, 21.60%       
 Very-preterm(<31W) 599, 82.51% 127, 17.49% 1.308 (1.074, 1.594) 0.008 0.048 1.267 (1.039, 1.545) 0.019 0.114
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 435, 82.08% 95, 17.92% 1.27 (1.012, 1.594) 0.039 0.078 1.24 (0.987, 1.558) 0.065 0.195
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 2377, 78.66% 645, 21.34% 1.022 (0.925, 1.129) 0.667 0.667 0.996 (0.901, 1.100) 0.930 0.930
 Early-term (37–38W) 7691, 78.29% 2133, 21.71% 0.981 (0.925, 1.04) 0.523 0.667 0.968 (0.912, 1.027) 0.277 0.415
 Full-term (39–40W) 15,317, 77.96% 4330, 22.04% Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 1918, 78.77% 517, 21.23% 1.029 (0.923, 1.147) 0.606 0.667 0.985 (0.883, 1.099) 0.787 0.930
 Post-term (>41W) 1321, 80.60% 318, 19.40% 1.152 (1.01, 1.314)* 0.035 0.078 1.111 (0.974, 1.269) 0.118 0.236
4 years old 33,962, 77.46% 9885, 22.54%       
 Very-preterm(<31W) 772, 82.30% 166, 17.70% 1.352 (1.137, 1.608) 0.001 0.002 1.295 (1.088, 1.542) 0.004 0.008
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 636, 82.81% 132, 17.19% 1.401 (1.155, 1.699) 0.001 0.002 1.35 (1.112, 1.639) 0.002 0.006
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 3120, 80.21% 770, 19.79% 1.178 (1.076, 1.29) <0.001 <0.001 1.155 (1.055, 1.266) 0.002 0.006
 Early-term (37–38W) 8520, 77.48% 2477, 22.52% 0.942 (0.892, 0.995) 0.031 0.0372 0.931 (0.882, 0.984) 0.011 0.016
 Full-term (39–40W) 17,022, 76.41% 5254, 23.59% Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 2140, 77.01% 639, 22.99% 0.974 (0.882, 1.075) 0.597 0.597 0.945 (0.855, 1.045) 0.269 0.269
 Post-term (>41W) 1752, 79.67% 447, 20.33% 1.139 (1.018, 1.276) 0.024 0.036 1.097 (0.979, 1.229) 0.111 0.133
5 years old 24,153, 74.00% 8488, 26.00%       
 Very-preterm(<31W) 561, 78.46% 154, 21.54% 1.321 (1.098, 1.589) 0.003 0.006 1.293 (1.074, 1.557) 0.007 0.014
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 456, 76.64% 139, 23.36% 1.189 (0.978, 1.447) 0.083 0.1245 1.155 (0.949, 1.407) 0.151 0.226
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 2552, 76.73% 774, 23.27% 1.195 (1.088, 1.313) <0.001 <0.001 1.172 (1.066, 1.288) 0.001 0.006
 Early-term (37–38W) 6134, 73.39% 2224, 26.61% 0.986 (0.929, 1.047) 0.651 0.651 0.979 (0.922, 1.04) 0.491 0.589
 Full-term (39–40W) 11,787, 73.12% 4333, 26.88% Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 1332, 73.92% 470, 26.08% 1.028 (0.915, 1.154) 0.646 0.651 1.002 (0.892, 1.126) 0.975 0.975
 Post-term (>41W) 1331, 77.16% 394, 22.84% 1.225 (1.084, 1.384) 0.001 0.003 1.209 (1.069, 1.368) 0.002 0.006
  1. CSHQ Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender, eyesight, co-sleep, maternal characteristics and family characteristics
  3. p* value corrected after multiple testing
  4. bStatistically significant results (p < 0.05) are in bold