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Table 4 The age-specific association between gestational age and score with daily sleep hours and CSHQ score in preschoolers(n=114,311)

From: Associations between gestational age and childhood sleep: a national retrospective cohort study

  Daily sleep hours (10.715±2.693) CSHQ score (46.706±7.576)
Crude β
(95% CI)
p p* Adjusted βa
(95% CI)
p p* Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted βa
(95% CI)
p p*
Total
 Very-preterm (<31W) −0.371 (−0.482, −0.261) <0.001 <0.001 −0.303 (−0.413, −0.193) <0.001 <0.001 1.917 (1.606, 2.227) <0.001 <0.001 1.827 (1.518, 2.136) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm (32–33W) −0.348 (−0.471, −0.224) <0.001 <0.001 −0.282 (−0.405, −0.159) <0.001 <0.001 1.473 (1.127, 1.82) <0.001 <0.001 1.409 (1.064, 1.754) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.275 (−0.332, −0.219) <0.001 <0.001 −0.201 (−0.258, −0.145) <0.001 <0.001 0.878 (0.719, 1.037) <0.001 <0.001 0.832 (0.673, 0.991) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.091 (−0.129, −0.053) <0.001 <0.001 −0.068 (−0.106, −0.031) <0.001 <0.001 0.200 (0.094, 0.307) <0.001 <0.001 0.233 (0.127, 0.339) <0.001 <0.001
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.072 (0.005, 0.138) 0.035 0.0035 0.067 (0.001, 0.133) 0.048 0.048 0.075 (0.112, 0.263) 0.430 0.430 0.005 (0.182, 0.191) 0.959 0.959
 Post-term (>41W) −0.166 (−0.240, −0.092) <0.001 <0.001 −0.110 (−0.184, −0.036) 0.003 0.0036 0.901 (0.693, 1.109) <0.001 <0.001 0.831 (0.624, 1.039) <0.001 <0.001
3 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) −0.54 (−0.735, −0.345) <0.001 <0.001 −0.473 (−0.667, −0.279) <0.001 <0.001 2.240 (1.704, 2.776) <0.001 <0.001 2.154 (1.620, 2.688) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) −0.448 (−0.675, −0.221) <0.001 <0.001 −0.397 (−0.623, −0.171) 0.001 0.002 1.836 (1.211, 2.46) <0.001 <0.001 1.810 (1.188, 2.433) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.256 (−0.357, −0.155) <0.001 <0.001 −0.191 (−0.291, −0.09) <0.001 <0.001 0.588 (0.31, 0.865) <0.001 <0.001 0.546 (0.268, 0.823) <0.001 <0.001
Early-term (37–38W) −0.077 (−0.141, −0.014) 0.017 0.0204 0.059 (0.123, 0.004) 0.068 0.081 0.180 (0.005, 0.356) 0.044 0.052 0.231 (0.056, 0.406) 0.01 0.012
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.028 (0.139, 0.082) 0.617 0.617 0.032 (0.142, 0.078) 0.571 0.571 0.074 (0.379, 0.231) 0.634 0.634 0.163 (0.467, 0.141) 0.293 0.293
 Post-term (>41W) −0.215 (−0.348, −0.083) 0.001 0.0015 −0.166 (−0.298, −0.034) 0.014 0.021 0.927 (0.562, 1.292) <0.001 <0.001 0.845 (0.481, 1.209) <0.001 <0.001
4 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) −0.315 (−0.491, −0.14) <0.001 <0.001 −0.248 (−0.423, −0.073) 0.005 0.010 1.771 (1.279, 2.263) <0.001 <0.001 1.648 (1.157, 2.139) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) −0.237 (−0.43, −0.043) 0.016 0.024 0.161 (0.353, 0.032) 0.102 0.122 1.472 (0.93, 2.014) <0.001 <0.001 1.374 (0.833, 1.914) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.236 (−0.328, −0.145) <0.001 <0.001 −0.166 (−0.258, −0.074) <0.001 <0.001 1.018 (0.762, 1.275) <0.001 <0.001 0.954 (0.697, 1.211) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.113 (−0.174, −0.051) <0.001 <0.001 −0.089 (−0.151, −0.028) 0.004 0.010 0.255 (0.083, 0.427) 0.0036 0.0043 0.283 (0.111, 0.455) 0.001 0.0012
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.118 (0.012, 0.224) 0.029 0.0348 0.109 (0.004, 0.215) 0.042 0.063 0.308 (0.011, 0.605) 0.042 0.042 0.262 (0.034, 0.557) 0.083 0.083
 Post-term (>41W) −0.126 (−0.244, −0.009) 0.035 0.035 0.077 (0.194, 0.04) 0.198 0.198 1.022 (0.692, 1.352) <0.001 <0.001 0.900 (0.571, 1.229) <0.001 <0.001
5 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) −0.254 (−0.462, −0.047) 0.016 0.032 0.196 (0.403, 0.011) 0.063 0.094 1.823 (1.227, 2.419) <0.001 <0.001 1.731 (1.137, 2.326) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) −0.37 (−0.597, −0.144) 0.001 0.003 −0.329 (−0.555, −0.104) 0.004 0.012 1.221 (0.57, 1.872) <0.001 <0.001 1.112 (0.463, 1.761) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.31 (−0.414, −0.207) <0.001 <0.001 −0.249 (−0.353, −0.146) <0.001 <0.001 1.046 (0.749, 1.343) <0.001 <0.001 0.953 (0.655, 1.251) 0.001 0.0015
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.074 (0.147, 0.001) 0.046 0.0552 0.05 (0.123, 0.023) 0.182 0.182 0.162 (0.048, 0.372) 0.130 0.156 0.176 (0.034, 0.386) 0.101 0.120
Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.124 (0.011, 0.259) 0.071 0.071 0.129 (0.005, 0.264) 0.056 0.094 0.112 (0.499, 0.275) 0.571 0.571 0.175 (0.561, 0.211) 0.375 0.375
 Post-term (>41W) 0.145 (0.282, 0.007) 0.039 0.0552 0.091 (0.228, 0.046) 0.179 0.182 0.78 (0.385, 1.175) <0.001 <0.001 0.724 (0.330, 1.118) <0.001 <0.001
  1. Daily sleep hours=5/7*sleep hours on weekdays +2/7*sleep hours at the weekends
  2. CSHQ Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire, CI confidence interval
  3. aAdjusted for age, gender, eyesight, co-sleep, maternal characteristics and family characteristics
  4. p* value corrected after multiple testing
  5. bStatistically significant results (p < 0.05) are in bold