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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to three types of beverage consumption in UK Biobank at 2021 (N=37,994)*

From: Associations between consumption of three types of beverages and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity in UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study

  Sugar-sweetened beverages Artificially sweetened beverages Pure fruit/vegetable juices
  0/day 0–1/day >1/day 0/day 0–1/day >1/day 0/day 0–1/day >1/day
Number of participants (n) 25,515 9868 2611 29,501 6194 2299 18,414 16,876 2704
Male % 12,772 (50.1) 5291 (53.6) 1570 (60.1) 15,614 (52.9) 2960 (47.8) 1059 (46.1) 9033 (49.1) 9012 (53.4) 1588 (58.7)
White ethnicity % 24,542 (96.2) 9398 (95.2) 2441 (93.5) 28,219 (95.7) 5944 (96.0) 2218 (96.5) 17,560 (95.4) 16,301 (96.6) 2520 (93.2)
Age (years) 61.6 (7.1) 61.3 (7.4) 58.9 (7.9) 61.8 (7.1) 60.3 (7.5) 58.3 (7.8) 60.8 (7.4) 62.0 (7.1) 61.2 (7.3)
Deprivation indexa −1.6 (2.9) −1.6 (2.9) −1.3 (3.0) −1.6 (2.9) −1.6 (2.8) −1.3 (3.1) −1.4 (2.9) −1.8 (2.8) −1.4 (3.0)
Sedentary hours (h/day) 4.9 (2.3) 5.1 (2.4) 5.5 (2.6) 4.9 (2.4) 5.3 (2.4) 5.6 (2.5) 5.2 (2.5) 4.9 (2.3) 4.9 (2.4)
Current smokers % 1775 (7.0) 632 (6.4) 222 (8.5) 2040 (6.9) 418 (6.7) 171 (7.4) 1537 (8.3) 918 (5.4) 174 (6.4)
Drinking ≥ 3 times /week % 13,298 (52.1) 4739 (48.0) 1041 (39.9) 15,254 (51.7) 2927 (47.3) 897 (39.0) 8578 (46.6) 9110 (54.0) 1390 (51.4)
Physical activity (MET-h/week) % 40.4 (40.4) 39.6 (39.9) 44.0 (46.2) 40.9 (41.1) 38.8 (39.2) 38.5 (39.4) 41.7 (42.6) 39.0 (38.4) 41.2 (41.2)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.2 (4.8) 28.5 (4.8) 29.3 (5.3) 27.9 (4.6) 29.3 (5.1) 31.0 (5.8) 28.6 (5.0) 28.1 (4.7) 28.1 (4.5)
Total energy (kJ/day) 8566 (2374) 9036 (2285) 9769 (2565) 8779 (2387) 8740 (2338) 8754 (2541) 8470 (2432) 8952 (2273) 9688 (2447)
Total sugar (g/day) 111.3 (44.7) 127.8 (43.9) 162.0 (54.8) 119.2 (47.1) 118.4 (45.9) 118.4 (52.6) 108.3 (46.2) 125.0 (42.9) 155.4 (54.8)
Fat (g/day) 74.8 (28.6) 79.2 (27.2) 82.6 (30.7) 76.4 (28.6) 76.6 (27.4) 77.8 (31.0) 75.3 (29.4) 77.3 (27.3) 79.5 (29.3)
Vegetable and fruits (servings/day) 5.0 (3.0) 4.8 (2.8) 4.6 (3.4) 4.9 (3.0) 4.8 (2.7) 4.8 (3.0) 4.8 (3.1) 4.9 (2.8) 5.3 (3.3)
Fish (servings/day) 2.0 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 1.8 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) 2.0 (1.0)
Red meat (servings/day) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2)
Insulin user % 330 (1.3) 104 (1.1) 24 (0.9) 287 (1.0) 104 (1.7) 67 (2.9) 276 (1.5) 170 (1.0) 12 (0.4)
Antihypertensive drug user % 14,060 (55.1) 5492 (55.7) 1430 (54.8) 16,356 (55.4) 3362 (54.3) 1264 (55.0) 9981 (54.2) 9467 (56.1) 1534 (56.7)
Aspirin user % 4798 (18.8) 1894 (19.2) 427 (16.4) 5549 (18.8) 1127 (18.2) 443 (19.3) 3339 (18.1) 3249 (19.3) 531 (19.6)
Lipid-lowering drug user % 7460 (29.2) 2918 (29.6) 728 (27.9) 8580 (29.1) 1848 (29.8) 678 (29.5) 5355 (29.1) 4948 (29.3) 803 (29.7)
Sugar-sweetened beverages (servings/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.6 (0.3) 2.2 (0.9) 0.3 (0.6) 0.4 (0.6) 0.4 (0.8) 0.3 (0.7) 0.3 (0.6) 0.3 (0.7)
Artificially sweetened beverages (servings/day) 0.2 (0.6) 0.3 (0.5) 0.4 (0.8) 0.0 (0.0) 0.6 (0.3) 2.3 (1.0) 0.3 (0.7) 0.2 (0.6) 0.2 (0.6)
Pure fruit/vegetable juices (servings/day) 0.4 (0.6) 0.4 (0.5) 0.4 (0.7) 0.4 (0.6) 0.4 (0.5) 0.4 (0.6) 0.0 (0.0) 0.7 (0.3) 1.8 (0.7)
  1. Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation) or number (percentage)
  2. MET metabolic equivalents
  3. *1 serving per day refers to 1 glass/can/carton/250mL per day
  4. aArea-based Townsend deprivation index derived from consensus data on employment, housing, car ownership, and household overcrowding, corresponding to the postcode of residence