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Table 2 Achievement of glycemic target over the years of follow-up

From: A retrospective database study of the demographic features and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

   Achievement of glycemic target—odds ratio (95% CI)1 Achievement of glycemic target—probabilities (95% CI)2
Crude model Years follow-up 1.041 (1.023, 1.058) 0.009 (0.067, 0.011)
N = 8976;
obs = 37,262
  < 0.001* < 0.001*
Adjusted model Years follow-up 1.184 (1.130, 1.239) 0.010 (0.007, 0.012)
N = 8648;
obs = 35,499
  < 0.001* < 0.001
  Sex   
  Men 1.342 (1.218, 1.478) 0.054 (0.039, 0.069)
   < 0.001* < 0.001
  Age   
  < 40 years 0.925 (0.766, 1.117) − 0.050 (− 0.074, − 0.017)
   0.417 0.002
  40–65 years 0.843 (0.755, 0.942) − 0.047 (− 0.064, − 0.030)
   0.003* < 0.001
  BMI   
  Overweight 1.289 (1.174, 1.414) 0.028 (0.015, 0.040)
   < 0.001* < 0.001
  Obese 1.306 (1.160, 1.470) 0.025 (0.008, 0.041)
   < 0.001* 0.003
  SBP   
  SBP < 130 mmHg 0.946 (0.874, 1.024) − 0.004 (− 0.015, 0.006)
   0.170 0.423
  Initial treatment   
  OGLDs 2.111 (1.913, 2.331) 0.077 (0.062, 0.091)
   < 0.001* < 0.001
  OGLDs + Insulin 1.213 (1.015, 1.449) 0.022 (− 0.005, 0.048)
   0.034* 0.113
  Diet 7.717 (6.170, 9.650) 0.334 (0.291, 0.377)
   < 0.001* < 0.001
  Time-interactions   
  Sex*years follow-up 1.018 (0.981, 1.057)
   0.350  
  < 40 years*years follow-up 0.903 (0.835, 0.976)
   0.010*  
  40–65 years*years follow-up 0.943 (0.904, 0.984)
   0.007*  
  Overweight*years follow-up 0.959 (0.929, 0.991)
   0.011*  
  Obesity*years follow-up 0.944 (0.904, 0.985)
   0.008*  
  SBP*years follow-up 1.015 (0.988, 1.043)
   0.272  
  OGLDs*year follow-up 0.864 (0.833, 0.897)
   < 0.001*  
  OGLDs + Insulin *year follow-up 0.973 (0.901, 1.051)
   0.490*  
  Diet* year follow-up 0.909 (0.816, 1.012)
   0.082  
  Variance intercept+(health centre) 0.034 (0.016, 0.072)
  Variance intercept+(ID participant) 1.227 (1.112, 1.354)
  Variance slope+(years follow-up) 0.041 (0.031, 0.056)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, OGLDs oral glucose lowering drugs, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. 1Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were obtained from a multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression with two random intercepts (health centres and participants ID) and one random slope (years of follow-up). The odds ratios need to be interpreted conditional on the random effects
  3. 2Estimated probabilities and 95% CI corresponding to the predicted average marginal effects from the multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression.
  4. The model is adjusted only for baseline (first visit of follow-up) covariates (sex, age, BMI, SBP, initial treatment and their corresponding interactions with years of follow-up). Achievement of glycemia target (achieved < 126 mg/dL and unachieved ≥ 126 mg/dL (reference)
  5. +Reported as estimates and corresponding 95% CI. Reference categories for the covariates are the following: sex (women), age (> 65 years old), BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m2), SBP (elevated, > 130 mmHg), initial treatment (Insulin), and same reference group was used for the interaction of covariates with years of follow-up. Extra information: average time points per patients for the crude model: 4.2 [min: 1, max: 27]; average time points per patients for the adjusted model: 4.0 [min: 1, max: 27].*p-value < 0.05