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Table 3 Achievement of glycemic target by sex and age categories (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval)

From: A retrospective database study of the demographic features and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

  < 40 years 40–65 years > 65 years
  Women Men Women Men Women Men
N patients (N observations) 506 (1812) 219 (764) 4197 (18,078) 1910 (7489) 1113 (4546) 698 (2799)
Years follow-up 1.123 (0.956, 1.318) 0.954 (0.740, 1.231) 1.120 (1.070, 1.173) 1.135 (1.072, 1.200) 1.141 (1.050, 1.240) 1.216 (1.104, 1.340)
0.157 0.720 < 0.001* < 0.001* 0.002* < 0.001
BMI
Overweight 0.964 (0.632, 1.469) 1.544 (0.919, 2.594) 1.315 (1.140, 1.517) 1.357 (1.137, 1.619) 0.950 (0.735, 1.190) 1.568 (1.162, 2.115)
0.863 0.101 < 0.001* 0.001* 0.531 0.003*
Obese 1.911 (1.170, 3.123) 1.159 (0.486, 2.717) 1.225 (1.039, 1.444) 1.605 (1.208, 2.131) 1.028 (0.748, 1.412) 1.373 (0.788, 2.391)
0.010 0.751 0.016 0.001* 0.864 0.263
SBP
SBP < 130 mmHg 1.015 (0.713, 1.446) 0.609 (0.380, 0.974) 0.986 (0.879, 1.106) 0.878 (0.750, 1.028) 1.014 (0.802, 1.282) 0.910 (0.696, 1.191)
0.932 0.039 0.815 0.105 0.907 0.494
Initial treatment
OGLDs 1.812 (1.138, 2.884) 1.295 (0.688, 2.437) 2.579 (2.228, 2.985) 1.507 (1.241, 1.830) 1.846 (1.407, 2.423) 2.143 (1.540, 2.983)
0.012 0.422 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*
OGLDs + Insulin 0.875 (0.387, 1.981) 2.413 (0.989, 5.887) 1.267 (0.982, 1.635) 1.204 (0.841, 1.726) 0.610 (0.330, 1.126) 1.438 (0.759, 2.723)
0.749 0.053 0.069 0.311 0.114 0.265
Diet 3.326 (0.979, 11.305) - 11.267 (7.782, 16.312) 5.344 (3.425, 8.338) 6.096 (3.776, 9.840) 10.328 (5.234, 20.379)
0.054   < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*
Time-interactions
Overweight*years follow-up 1.032 (0.864, 1.232) 0.885 (0.710, 1.104) 0.969 (0.925, 1.015) 0.925 (0.869, 0.986) 1.028 (0.933, 1.132) 0.901 (0.801, 1.013)
0.730 0.279 0.183 0.016 0.579 0.081
Obesity*years follow-up 0.809 (0.648, 1.009) 0.925 (0.572, 1.494) 0.961 (0.908, 1.017) 0.951 (0.860, 1.052) 0.987 (0.865, 1.126) 0.879 (0.724 1.068)
0.060 0.749 0.172 0.328 0.846 0.195
SBP*years follow-up 0.949 (0.844, 1.069) 1.203 (0.976, 1.483) 1.021 (0.984, 1.060) 1.019 (0.966, 1.076) 0.991 (0.907, 1.083) 0.971 (0.881, 1.079)
0.394 0.083 0.270 0.488 0.843 0.549
OGLDs*year follow-up 0.917 (0.767, 1.095) 1.049 (0.778, 1.413) 0.841 (0.798, 0.885) 0.891 (0.829, 0.959) 0.881 (0.788, 0.985) 0.873 (0.772, 0.989)
0.337 0.755 < 0.001* 0.002* 0.026 0.032
OGLDs + Insulin*year follow-up 0.893 (0.635, 1.255) 0.448 (0.216, 0.927) 0.961 (0.865, 1.067) 1.051 (0.891, 1.240) 1.469 (1.079, 1.999) 0.887 (0.688, 1.143)
0.514 0.031 0.451 0.552 0.015 0.354
Diet*year follow-up 0.545 (0.211, 1.409) - 0.852 (0.732, 0.992) 0.917 (0.742, 1.133) 1.059 (0.816, 1.372) 0.934 (0.564, 1.547)
0.210   0.039 0.424 0.665 0.792
Variance intercept+(health centre) - - 0.059 (0.026, 1.132) 0.024 (0.007, 0.081) 0.029 (0.004, 0.195) -
Variance intercept+(ID participant) 1.201 (0.779, 1.853) 0.427 (0.117, 1.556) 1.453 (1.274, 1.657) 0.859 (0.675, 1.092) 1.086 (0.802, 1.471) 1.197 (0.858, 1.671)
Variance slope+(years follow-up) 0.009 (0.000, 6.555) 0.079 (0.013, 0.483) 0.038 (0.024, 0.070) 0.029 (0.014, 0.059) 0.063 (0.033, 0.120) 0.043 (0.016, 0.111)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, OGLDs oral glucose lowering drugs, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained from a multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression with two random intercepts (health centres and participants ID) and one random slope (years of follow-up). The odds ratios’ interpretation is conditional on the random effects. Below every estimate with 95% CI, the corresponding p-value is presented
  3. *Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.008. The model is adjusted only for baseline (first visit of follow-up) covariates (BMI, SBP, initial treatment and their corresponding interactions with years of follow-up). Achievement of glycemia target (achieved < 126 mg/dL and unachieved ≥ 126 mg/dL (reference)
  4. +Reported as estimates and corresponding 95% CI. Reference categories for the covariates are the following: BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m2), SBP (elevated, > 130 mmHg), initial treatment (Insulin), and same reference group was used for the interaction of covariates with years of follow-up