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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study cohorts

From: Modified cardiovascular SOFA score in sepsis: development and internal and external validation

Variables Derivation cohort
(n = 5176)
Internal validation cohort (n = 2217) External validation 1
(n = 4038)
External validation 2
(n = 3107)
Data source Retrospective single-center cohort Retrospective single-center cohort Prospective, multi-center ED registry Prospective, multi-center ED registry
Age (mean ± SD), years 61.4 ± 16.2 61.6 ± 15.8 70.4 ± 13.4 66.6 ± 13.2
Male sex, No. (%) 2827 (54.6%) 1189 (53.6%) 2398 (59.4%) 1841 (59.3%)
Comorbidities, No. (%)
 Hypertension 1648 (31.8%) 676 (30.5%) 1777 (44.0%) 1195 (38.5%)
 Diabetes mellitus 1111 (21.5%) 508 (22.9%) 1317 (32.6%) 915 (29.4%)
 Cardiac disease 702 (13.6%) 319 (14.4%) 87 (2.2%) 418 (13.5%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 500 (9.7%) 201 (9.1%) 745 (20.2%) 296 (9.5%)
 Chronic lung disease 505 (9.8%) 221 (10.0%) 483 (12.0%) 250 (8.0%)
 Metastatic cancer 1176 (22.7%) 504 (22.7%) 489 (12.1%) 999 (32.2%)
 Chronic kidney disease 566 (10.9%) 243 (11.0%) 398 (9.9%) 255 (8.2%)
 Chronic liver disease 466 (9.0%) 199 (9.0%) 383 (9.5%) 369 (11.9%)
Infection focus, No. (%)
 Lung 1552 (30.0%) 668 (30.1%) 1724 (42.7%) 911 (29.3%)
 UTI 874 (16.9%) 386 (17.4%) 796 (19.7%) 667 (21.5%)
 GI 824 (15.9%) 294 (13.3%) 360 (8.9%) 542 (17.4%)
 Hepatobiliary 876 (16.9%) 386 (17.4%) 751 (18.6%) 726 (23.4%)
 Bone soft tissue 246 (4.8%) 125 (5.6%) 125 (3.1%) 133 (4.3%)
 Other 596 (11.5%) 256 (11.5%) 201 (5%) 102 (3.3%)
Initial vital signs
 SBP (mean ± SD), mmHg 120.6 ± 26.0 120.0 ± 25.9 101.4 ± 29.1 100.3 ± 29.2
 DBP (mean ± SD), mmHg 71.2 ± 15.4 70.9 ± 15.8 58.5 ± 16.8 60.5 ± 18.7
 HR (mean ± SD), beat per min 101.8 ± 20.9 101.7 ± 21.0 105.3 ± 31.3 109.9 ± 25.6
 RR (mean ± SD), breaths per min 19.2 ± 3.6 19.2 ± 4.5 22.5 ± 6.5 21.3 ± 5.1
 BT mean (mean ± SD), (°C) 37.7 ± 1.0 37.7 ± 1.0 37.5 ± 5.3 37.7 ± 1.3
Laboratory findings (mean ± SD)
 WBC, 103/L 10.1 ± 9.6 9.9 ± 8.8 13.0 ± 11.2 12.4 ± 1.7
 Hb, g/dl 11.3 ± 2.3 11.3 ± 2.3 10.9 ± 2.4 10.8 ± 2.5
 Platelet, 103/L 208.1 ± 124.5 204.2 ± 122.2 185.8 ± 120.0 159.1 ± 125.1
 Albumin, g/dL 3.7 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 2.9 3.0 ± 3.4
 Bilirubin, mg/dL 1.3 ± 2.4 1.3 ± 2.2 1.8 ± 3.7 2.1 ± 3.5
 BUN, mg/dL 20.8 ± 16.2 20.5 ± 15.6 33.4 ± 24.6 32.2 ± 21.6
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.2 ± 1.4 1.2 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 1.6
 CRP, mg/dL 9.8 ± 9.2 10.0 ± 9.2 14.4 ± 9.8 14.8 ± 11.4
 Lactate, mmol/L 2.0 ± 1.6 2.0 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 3.3 4.1 ± 3.1
SOFA score (mean ± SD) 3.1 ± 3.1 3.1 ± 3.0 7.1 ± 3.6 8.1 ± 3.8
Cardiac SOFA
 0 3473 (67.1%) 1489 (67.2%) 972 (24.0%) 202 (6.5%)
 1 1202 (23.2%) 521 (23.5%) 1174 (29.0%) 334 (10.7%)
 2 - - 20 (0.5%) 55 (1.8%)
 3 151 (2.9%) 62 (2.8%) 517 (12.8%) 1156 (37.2%)
 4 350 (6.8%) 145 (6.5%) 1355 (33.5%) 1360 (43.8%)
CNS SOFA
 0 4680 (90.4%) 1997 (90.1%) 1899 (47.0%) 2163 (69.6%)
 1 229 (4.5%) 97 (4.5%) 665 (16.4%) 427 (13.7%)
 2 121 (2.4%) 58 (2.7%) 504 (12.5%) 152 (4.9%)
 3 110 (2.2%) 50 (2.3%) 517 (12.8%) 149 (4.8%)
 4 36 (0.7%) 15 (0.7%) 443 (10.9%) 216 (7.0%)
Respiratory SOFA
 0 2915 (56.3%) 1259 (56.8%) 1184 (29.3%) 954 (30.7%)
 1 1304 (25.8%) 566 (26.1%) 758 (18.7%) 855 (27.5%)
 2 542 (10.7%) 226 (10.4%) 1594 (39.4%) 575 (18.5%)
 3 268 (5.3%) 103 (4.8%) 265 (6.5%) 373 (12.0%)
 4 147 (2.9%) 63 (2.9%) 237 (5.8%) 350 (11.3%)
Renal SOFA
 0 3911 (75.5%) 1706 (76.9%) 1848 (45.7%) 1342 (43.2%)
 1 729 (14.1%) 285 (12.9%) 1083 (26.8%) 883 (28.4%)
 2 288 (5.6%) 123 (5.4%) 695 (17.2%) 591 (19.0%)
 3 100 (1.9%) 45 (2.0%) 212 (5.2%) 170 (5.5%)
 4 148 (2.9%) 58 (2.6%) 200 (5.0%) 121 (3.9%)
Hepatic SOFA
 0 3840 (74.2%) 1680 (75.8%) 2529 (62.6%) 1662 (53.5%)
 1 658 (12.7%) 226 (10.2%) 656 (16.2%) 566 (18.2%)
 2 487 (9.4%) 231 (10.4%) 639 (15.8%) 655 (21.1%)
 3 130 (2.5%) 57 (2.6%) 153 (3.8%) 150 (4.8%)
 4 61 (1.2%) 23 (1.0%) 61 (1.5%) 74 (2.4%)
Coagulation SOFA
 0 3386 (65.4%) 1429 (64.5%) 2296 (56.8%) 1343 (43.2%)
 1 770 (14.9%) 316 (14.3%) 684 (16.9%) 556 (17.9%)
 2 523 (10.1%) 240 (10.8%) 619 (15.3%) 549 (17.7%)
 3 281 (5.4%) 137 (6.2%) 312 (7.7%) 406 (13.1%)
 4 216 (4.2%) 95 (4.3%) 127 (3.1%) 253 (8.1%)
Vasopressor use, No. (%) 501 (10.5%) 207 (10.1%) 2247 (55.6%) 2580 (83.0%)
Mechanical ventilation, No. (%) 208 (4.0%) 88 (4.0%) 943 (23.4%) 904 (29.1%)
ICU admission, No. (%) 317 (6.1%) 152 (6.9%) 1434 (35.5%) 1966 (63.3%)
In-hospital mortality, No. (%) 233 (4.5%) 119 (5.4%) 621 (15.5%) 650 (20.9%)
28-day mortality, No. (%) 399 (7.7%) 182 (8.2%) 864 (21.4%) 638 (20.5%)
  1. ED emergency department, SD standard deviation, UTI urinary tract infection, GI gastrointestinal, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, BT body temperature, WBC white blood cell, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CRP c-reactive protein, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, CNS central nervous system, ICU intensive care unit