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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the discovery, test, training, and validation cohorts of participants

From: Circulating exosomal mRNA signatures for the early diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Characteristics Discovery set Test set Training set Validation set
ccRCC Healthy p ccRCC Healthy p ccRCC Healthy p ccRCC Healthy p Benign p
n = 12 n = 22 n = 16 n = 20 n = 92 n = 50 n = 106 n = 97 n = 73
Age (years)    0.500    0.438    0.062    0.125   0.176
 Mean ± SD 55.6 ± 15.4 52.1 ± 13.9   52.4 ± 11.6 55.9 ± 13.9   56.2 ± 11.8 59.8 ± 8.4   54.0 ± 11.0 55.9 ± 5.5   51.6 ± 12.7  
Sex, n (%)    0.297    0.157    0.153    0.294   0.000
 Male 8 (66.7) 10 (45.5)   13 (81.3) 11 (55.0)   66 (71.7) 30 (60.0)   73 (68.9) 60 (61.9)   30 (41.1)  
 Female 4 (33.3) 12 (54.5)   3 (18.7) 9 (45.0)   26 (28.3) 20 (40.0)   33 (31.1) 37 (38.1)   43 (58.9)  
Tumor size (cm)
 Mean ± SD 3.8 ± 2.2    3.1 ± 1.5    3. 5 ± 1.6    3.6 ± 1.8    4.8 ± 2.8  
Tumor stage, n (%)
 T1a 10 (83.3)    13 (81.3)    69 (75.0)    77 (72.6)     
 T1b 2 (16.7)    3 (18.7)    19 (20.7)    24 (22.6)     
 T2 0    0    4 (4.3)    5 (4.7)     
Pathological grade (WHO/ISUP), n (%)
 1 1 (8.3)    1 (6.3)    6 (6.5)    10 (9.4)     
 2 9 (75.0)    14 (87.5)    75 (81.5)    92 (86.8)     
 3 1(8.3)    1 (6.3)    10 (10.9)    4 (3.8)     
 4 0    0    1 (1.1)    0     
 Unclassified 1 (8.3)    0    0    0     
  1. Abbreviation: ccRCC, clear cell renal cell carcinoma