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Table 2 Risk of primary obstetric outcomes among women with PCOS compared to women without PCOS

From: Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of adverse obstetric outcomes: a retrospective population-based matched cohort study in England

Outcomes Deliveries of women with PCOS* (n = 27,586) Age-matched deliveries of women without PCOS (n = 110,344)
Preterm (< 37 weeks of gestational age at delivery)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n(%) 2104 (7.63%) 7520 (6.82%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.13 (1.07–1.19)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.12 (1.07–1.17)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.09 (1.03–1.14)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.11 (1.05–1.17)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.11 (1.06–1.17)
Mode of delivery
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
Outcome events, n(%)
  Emergency CS 3473 (12.59%) 12,073 (10.94%)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 4211 (15.26%) 15,279 (13.85%)
  Instrumental vaginal 3077 (11.15%) 12,573 (11.39%)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal 16,825 (60.99%) 70,419 (63.82%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
  Emergency CS 1.20 (1.15–1.26)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.15 (1.11–1.20)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal Ref
Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1)
  Emergency CS 1.20 (1.15–1.26)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.15 (1.10–1.19)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal Ref
Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2)
  Emergency CS 1.17 (1.12–1.23)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.13 (1.08–1.18)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
  Spontaneous/Other/Unspecified Vaginal Ref
Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3)
  Emergency CS 1.18 (1.12–1.23)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.13 (1.09–1.18)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal Ref
Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4)
  Emergency CS 1.11 (1.06–1.16)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.08 (1.04–1.13)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.04 (0.99–1.09)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal Ref
Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 5)
  Emergency CS 1.10 (1.05–1.15)
  Elective/other/unspecified CS 1.07 (1.03–1.12)
  Instrumental vaginal 1.04 (1.00–1.09)
  Spontaneous/other/unspecified vaginal Ref
High birthweight > 4 kg (for at least one of the babies)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n(%) 2709 (9.82%) 10,632 (9.64%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.97–1.07)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.03 (0.99–1.08)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.03 (0.98–1.07)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 0.96 (0.92–1.00)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 5) 0.97 (0.92–1.01)
Low birthweight < 2.5 kg (for at least one of the babies)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n(%) 1627 (5.90%) 5903 (5.35%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.11 (1.05–1.18)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.10 (1.04–1.16)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.08 (1.02–1.14)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.10 (1.03–1.17)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.13 (1.06–1.20)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 5) 1.03 (0.95–1.13)
Stillbirth
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n (%) 122 (0.44%) 471 (0.43%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.85–1.26)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.03 (0.85–1.25)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.02 (0.85–1.24)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.01 (0.84–1.22)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 0.99 (0.81–1.21)
  1. *Record of PCOS/PCO/combination of symptom codes indicating a missed PCOS diagnosis based on Rotterdam criteria [(1) anovulation and (2) biochemical or symptomatic presentation of hyperandrogenism; Read code record of hair loss or hirsutism and a recorded measure of serum testosterone level ≥ 2.0 nmol/L was considered as symptomatic and biochemical presentation of hyperandrogenism, respectively]
  2. PCOS Polycystic ovary syndrome, CS Caesarean section, OR Odds ratio
  3. Model 1: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, and deprivation
  4. Model 2: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension and thyroid disorders
  5. Model 3: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension, thyroid disorders, and numbers of babies born at the delivery
  6. Model 4: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension, thyroid disorders, numbers of babies born at the delivery, and pre-gravid body mass index
  7. Model 5: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension, thyroid disorders, numbers of babies born at the delivery, pre-gravid body mass index, and gestational age