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Table 3 Risk of secondary obstetric outcomes among women with PCOS compared to women without PCOS

From: Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of adverse obstetric outcomes: a retrospective population-based matched cohort study in England

Outcomes Deliveries of women with PCOS* Age-matched deliveries of women without PCOS
Very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestational age at delivery)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n(%) 619 (2.24%) 2244 (2.03%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.11 (1.01–1.22)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.09 (0.99–1.19)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.07 (0.97–1.18)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.07 (0.97–1.18)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.07 (0.97–1.18)
Extremely preterm (< 28 weeks of gestational age at delivery)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n (%) 272 (0.99%) 909 (0.82%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.04–1.39)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.16 (1.01–1.33)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.14 (0.99–1.31)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.13 (0.98–1.29)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.13 (0.98–1.29)
Large for gestational age > 90th percentile (for at least one of the babies)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n (%) 4922 (17.84%) 18,593 (16.85%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.07 (1.03–1.11)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.08 (1.05–1.12)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.06 (1.03–1.10)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.06 (1.03–1.10)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.00 (0.97–1.04)
Small for gestational age < 10th percentile (for at least one of the babies)
  Number of patients 27,586 110,344
  Outcome events, n (%) 1113 (4.03%) 4305 (3.90%)
  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.97–1.11)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 1) 1.01 (0.94–1.09)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 2) 1.01 (0.94–1.09)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 3) 1.00 (0.93–1.08)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) (Model 4) 1.03 (0.96–1.11)
  1. *Record of PCOS/PCO/combination of symptom codes indicating a missed PCOS diagnosis based on Rotterdam criteria [(1) anovulation and (2) biochemical or symptomatic presentation of hyperandrogenism; Read code record of hair loss or hirsutism and a recorded measure of serum testosterone level ≥ 2.0 nmol/L was considered as symptomatic and biochemical presentation of hyperandrogenism, respectively]
  2. PCOS Polycystic ovary syndrome, CS Caesarean section, OR Odds ratio
  3. Model 1: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, and deprivation
  4. Model 2: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension and thyroid disorders
  5. Model 3: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension, thyroid disorders, and numbers of babies born at the delivery
  6. Model 4: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, deprivation, baseline dysglycaemia, hypertension, thyroid disorders, numbers of babies born at the delivery, and pre-gravid body mass index