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Table 2 Frailty in individuals with and without mental disorders

From: Frailty in individuals with depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders: longitudinal analyses of all-cause mortality

  Model 1 Model 2
Frailty phenotype OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
 No mental disorder Ref Ref
 Depression 1.594 1.568 1.620 1.392 1.368 1.416
 Bipolar disorder 1.904 1.772 2.046 1.543 1.433 1.661
 Anxiety disorder 1.503 1.471 1.536 1.352 1.322 1.384
Frailty index β 95% CI β 95% CI
 No mental disorder Ref Ref
 Depression 0.045 0.044 0.045 0.026 0.026 0.027
 Bipolar disorder 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.036 0.034 0.038
 Anxiety disorder 0.047 0.046 0.048 0.029 0.028 0.029
  1. OR odds ratio, β ordinary least squares regression beta coefficient, CI confidence interval, Ref reference group. All Bonferroni-adjusted p-values < 0.001. Odds ratios indicate changes in odds of being frailer associated with being in the case group relative to the comparison group without mental disorders. Model 1—unadjusted; Model 2—adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, highest qualification, Townsend deprivation index, cohabitation with spouse/partner, smoking status, alcohol intake frequency, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, multimorbidity count and assessment centre