Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Regular proton pump inhibitor use and incident dementia: population-based cohort study

Characteristics No. (%)a
PPI non-users PPI users
Total 447,267 53,735
Age (years), mean (SD) 56.2 (8.1) 59.4 (7.3)
Sex
 Female 243,253 (54.4) 29,352 (54.6)
 Male 204,014 (45.6) 24,383 (45.4)
Ethnicity
 White 422,581 (94.5) 51,240 (95.4)
 Others 24,686 (5.5) 2495 (4.6)
Education
 Higher 220,614 (49.3) 20,767 (38.6)
 Upper secondary 39,176 (8.8) 3660 (6.8)
 Lower secondary 92,519 (20.7) 11,203 (20.8)
 Vocational 22,670 (5.1) 3563 (6.6)
 Others 72,288 (16.2) 14,542 (27.1)
Household income (£)
 <18,000 99,929 (22.3) 18,700 (34.8)
 18,000–30,999 114,099 (25.5) 14,956 (27.8)
 31,000–51,999 117,645 (26.3) 11,560 (21.5)
 52,000–100,000 91,382 (20.4) 6918 (12.9)
 >100,000 24,212 (5.4) 1601 (3.0)
Townsend deprivation index, median [interquartile range] −2.2 [−3.7, 0.5] −1.8 [−3.5, 1.2]
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 27.2 (4.7) 29.1 (5.1)
Regular physical activity
 No 185,029 (41.4) 25,213 (46.9)
 Yes 262,238 (58.6) 28,522 (53.1)
Smoking status
 Never 249,076 (55.7) 25,226 (46.9)
 Former 150,929 (33.7) 22,604 (42.1)
 Current 47,262 (10.6) 5905 (11.0)
Alcohol consumption (g/day)
 0 107,342 (24.0) 17,191 (32.0)
 0.01–13.99 167,958 (37.6) 18,331 (34.1)
 14–27.99 96,157 (21.5) 9685 (18.0)
 ≥28 75,810 (16.9) 8528 (15.9)
Occupational exposure
 Rarely/never 355,224 (79.4) 43,967 (81.8)
 Sometimes 57,614 (12.9) 5383 (10.0)
 Often 34,429 (7.7) 4385 (8.2)
Health conditions
 Hypertension 110,673 (24.7) 22,237 (41.4)
 Coronary heart disease 16,831 (3.8) 7377 (13.7)
 Diabetes 20,061 (4.5) 5362 (10.0)
 High cholesterol 49,626 (11.1) 11,814 (22.0)
 Stroke 5395 (1.2) 1802 (3.4)
 Traumatic brain injury 1393 (0.3) 222 (0.4)
 Depression 22,812 (5.1) 5294 (9.9)
 Anxiety 5539 (1.2) 1160 (2.2)
 Sleep apnea 1240 (0.3) 368 (0.7)
 Cancer 33,592 (7.5) 5739 (10.7)
 GERD 5183 (1.2) 15,758 (29.3)
 Barrett’s esophagus 237 (0.1) 1231 (2.3)
 Gastroduodenal ulcer 2765 (0.6) 2840 (5.3)
Regular use of supplement or drugs
 Statin 68,147 (15.2) 18,474 (34.4)
 Antihypertensive drugs 83,931 (18.8) 19,782 (36.8)
 Anticholinergic drugs 38,032 (8.5) 11,747 (21.9)
 Benzodiazepines 2424 (0.5) 1013 (1.9)
 z-Hypnotics 1458 (0.3) 611 (1.1)
 Aspirin 56,812 (12.7) 12,648 (23.5)
 Non-aspirin NSAIDs 128,374 (28.7) 20,366 (37.9)
 Multivitamin 139,534 (31.2) 17,859 (33.2)
 H2RAs 7533 (1.7) 1921 (3.6)
APOE genotype
APOE ε4 −/− 310,111 (71.5) 37,676 (72.3)
APOE ε4 +/− 113,253 (26.1) 13,280 (25.5)
APOE ε4 +/+ 10,367 (2.4) 1169 (2.2)
  1. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor, SD standard deviation, GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, H2RAs H2 receptor antagonists, APOE apolipoprotein E
  2. aAll variables globally significantly different between groups at P < 0.001, except for sex (P = 0.299)