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Table 2 Associations of regular PPI use with incident dementia

From: Regular proton pump inhibitor use and incident dementia: population-based cohort study

Outcomes PPI non-users (n = 447,267) PPI users (n = 53,735) Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
No. of events (%) No. of events (%) HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
All-cause dementia 2008 (0.45) 497 (0.92) 1.49 (1.35–1.65) <0.001 1.17 (1.05–1.29) 0.003 1.20 (1.07–1.35) 0.001
Alzheimer’s disease 752 (0.17) 180 (0.33) 1.41 (1.20–1.66) <0.001 1.19 (1.00–1.41) 0.045 1.23 (1.02–1.49) 0.031
Vascular dementia 392 (0.09) 132 (0.25) 1.99 (1.63–2.42) <0.001 1.32 (1.07–1.62) 0.009 1.32 (1.05–1.67) 0.017
  1. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aModel 1: Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age and sex
  3. bModel 2: Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for model 1 and ethnicity, education, household income, Townsend deprivation index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, occupational exposure, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, sleep apnea, cancer, and regular use of medications (statin, antihypertensive drugs, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and multivitamin)
  4. cModel 3: Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for model 2 and GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, gastroduodenal ulcer, and regular H2RAs use