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Table 1 Meta-analysis results of AEs

From: Clinical translation of stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury still premature: results from a single-arm meta-analysis based on 62 clinical trials

AEs Stem cell types Number of studies Incidence Heterogeneity (I2)
AEs of the nervous system
 Neuropathic pain Total 20 25.2% [14.2%, 37.8%] 84.514%
BMSCs 17 27.9% [15.1, 42.5] 86.636%
UCMSCs 2 14.0 [2.6, 30.5] 0.0%
NSCs 1 8.3 [0.2, 38.5] /
 Abnormal feeling Total 4 24.8% [10.5%, 41.8%] 0.0%
BMSCs 4 24.8% [10.5%, 41.8%] 0.0%
 Fever Total 18 15.5% [10.0%, 21.8%] 80.528%
BMSCs 9 18.6% [7.1%, 33.2%] 83.669%
UCMSCs 5 11.6% [8.4%, 15.1%] 0.0%
HSCs 3 8.9% [0%, 26.8%] 94.602
ESCs 1 13.2% [8.9%, 18.7%] /
CBSCs 1 12.0% [2.5%, 31.2%] /
 Headache Total 19 13.5% [8.4%, 19.5%] 80.332%
BMSCs 10 16.2% [8.1%, 25.9%] 70.036%
UCMSCs 4 5.5% [0.6%, 13.4%] 44.522%
NSCs 2 19.2% [7.9%, 33.4%] 0.0%
ADMSCs 1 21.4% [4.7%, 50.8%] /
ESCs 1 11.3% [7.3%, 16.4%] /
HSCs 1 12.4% [8.2%, 17.7%] /
 Abnormal autonomic reflexes Total 1 10.3% [2.2%, 27.4%] /
NSCs 1 10.3% [2.2%, 27.4%] /
 Cerebrospinal fluid leak Total 3 7.7% [1.7%, 16.3%] 0.0%
BMSCs 2 5.8% [0%, 17.4%] 0.0%
NSCs 1 10.3% [2.2%, 27.4%] /
 Meningismus Total 1 3.5% [1.4%, 7.0%] /
HSCs 1 3.5% [1.4%, 7.0%] /
 Pseudomeningocele Total 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
NSCs 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
 Lethargy Total 1 2.0% [0.5%, 5.0%] /
HSCs 1 2.0% [0.5%, 5.0%] /
 Dizziness Total 2 1.9% [0.9%, 3.2%] 57.3%
UCMSCs 1 1.3% [0.4%, 3.0%] /
HSCs 1 3.5% [1.4%, 7.0%] /
 Mental disorder Total 2 1.0% [0%, 3.2%] 77.7%
UCMSCs 1 20.0% [5.7%, 43.7%] /
HSCs 1 1.0% [0.1%, 3.5%] /
AEs of the musculoskeletal system
 Muscle spasms Total 11 25.5% [13.2%, 39.8%] 90.162%
BMSCs 8 24.1% [10.5%, 40.6%] 84.328%
UCMSCs 1 24.1% [10.3%, 43.5%] /
NSCs 1 5.3% [0.1%, 26.0%] /
HSCs 1 54.5% [47.3, 61.5%] /
 Increased muscle tone Total 4 18.8% [0.2%, 51.3%] 92.790%
BMSCs 3 29.8% [12.3%, 50.6%] 52.086%
UCMSCs 1 1.6% [0.6%, 3.4%] /
 Lower limb muscle atrophy Total 1 16.7% [0.4%, 64.1%] /
BMSCs 1 16.7% [0.4%, 64.1%] /
 Osteoporosis Total 1 15.0% [3.2%, 37.9%] /
UCMSCs 1 15.0% [3.2%, 37.9%] /
 Back pain Total 1 4.5% [0.1%, 22.8%] /
UCMSCs 1 4.5% [0.1%, 22.8%] /
 Seizures Total 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
NSCs 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
AEs of the digestive system
 Vomit Total 3 21.6% [8.9%, 37.2%] 0.0%
BMSCs 1 23.1% [5.0%, 53.8%] /
ADMSCs 1 21.4% [4.7%, 50.8%] /
UCMSCs 1 20.0% [2.5%, 55.6%] /
 Gastrointestinal dysfunction Total 4 10.8% [0.1%, 31.5%] 90.061%
BMSCs 2 14.3% [5.7%, 25.6%] 0.0%
UCMSCs 1 30.0% [11.9%, 54.3%] /
ESCs 1 1.0% [0.1%, 3.5%] /
 Nausea Total 2 0.5% [0%, 2.5%] 71.1%
ADMSCs 1 21.4% [4.7%, 50.8%] /
ESCs 1 1.0% [0.1%, 3.5%] /
AEs of the cardiovascular system
 Hypertension Total 2 12.7% [8.7%, 17.3%] 61.1%
BMSCs 1 7.0% [1.5%, 19.1%] /
HSCs 1 14.4% [9.8%, 20.0%] /
 Low blood pressure Total 1 5.9% [3.1%, 10.1%] /
HSCs 1 5.9% [3.1%, 10.1%] /
 Deep vein thrombosis Total 1 5.0% [0.1%, 24.9%] /
UCMSCs 1 5.0% [0.1%, 24.9%] /
 Postoperative sepsis Total 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
NSCs 1 3.4% [0.1%, 17.8%] /
Other AEs
 Urinary tract infection Total 3 23.7% [13.5%, 35.5%] 0.0%
ADMSCs 1 21.4% [4.7%, 50.8%] /
UCMSCs 1 25.0% [8.7%, 49.1%] /
NSCs 1 24.1% [10.3%, 43.5%] /
 Lung infection Total 1 20.0% [5.7%, 43.7%] /
UCMSCs 1 20.0% [5.7%, 43.7%] /
 Pressure ulcer Total 2 14.1% [5.2%, 25.8%] 0.0%
UCMSCs 1 10.0% [1.2%, 31.7%] /
NSCs 1 17.2% [5.8%, 35.8%] /
 Itching and rash Total 2 1.6% [0.2%, 3.9%] 80.0%
BMSCs 1 14.3% [4.8%, 30.3] /
ESCs 1 1.0% [0.1%, 3.5%] /