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Fig. 3 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Investigating causal relations between sleep duration and risks of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes: linear and nonlinear Mendelian randomization analyses

Fig. 3

One-sample MR estimates of effects of sleep duration on pregnancy-related outcomes in five groups in UK Biobank women. We present MR estimates of a linear effect of increasing duration on the outcome across the length of residual duration (h/day) covered in each group. Further details about identifying the pattern of nonlinear effects are illustrated in Table 1. P-value for Cochran’s Q-statistic testing statistical evidence for between-group heterogeneity. P-value for nonlinearity testing statistical evidence whether the MR estimates are changed as the self-reported sleep duration mean increases. Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval; HDP, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; MR, Mendelian randomization; OR, odds ratio

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