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Table 1 Key studies evaluating the GFD in IBS

From: Diet and irritable bowel syndrome: an update from a UK consensus meeting

Lead author Year Study design Study duration Total number of participants Outcome
Biesiekierski [16] 2011 DBPC trial 6 weeks 34 IBS patients (Rome III) 68% had inadequate control of symptoms with gluten compared to 40% with placebo (p = 0.0001)
Biesiekierski [21] 2013 Crossover DBPC trial 9 weeks 37 IBS patients (Rome III) No dose dependent effects of gluten seen when placed on a diet low in FODMAPs
Vasquez-Roque [17] 2013 RCT 4 weeks 45 IBS-D patients (Rome II) Individuals on gluten containing diet had more bowel movements per day compared to those on gluten-free diet (p = 0.04)
Aziz [22] 2015 Prospective study 6 weeks 41 IBS-D patients (Rome III) 71% had clinical response to GFD
Shahbazkhani [18] 2015 DBPC trial 6 weeks 72 IBS patients (Rome III) Symptom improvement in gluten containing group lower than placebo (26% vs 84%, p < 0.001)
Zanwar [19] 2015 DBPC trial 4 weeks 60 IBS patients (Rome III) Higher overall symptom VAS score with gluten vs placebo (week 4; 25 vs 10, p < 0.05)
Barmeyer [14] 2017 Prospective study 4 months 35 IBS-D/M patients (Rome III) 34% of patients noted to be responders to GFD
Paduano [23] 2019 Prospective study 4 weeks 42 IBS patients (Rome IV) Reduction in symptom severity (p < 0.01), bloating (p < 0.01), abdominal pain (p < 0.01) on GFD
Pinto-Sanchez [24] 2021 Prospective study 4 weeks 50 IBS patients (Rome III) 75% clinical response for individuals on GFD with positive antigliadin antibodies, 38% response for those without
Rej [20] 2022 RCT 4 weeks 101 IBS patients (Rome IV) 58% clinical response to GFD
  1. Total number of studies; n = 10, total number of participants; n = 517