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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics for derivation and validation cohorts of patients admitted to participant hospitals with COVID-19 (n=6490)

From: Development and validation of the MMCD score to predict kidney replacement therapy in COVID-19 patients

Label Derivation cohort Temporal validation cohort Geographic validation cohort
Characteristic N = 3680a Non missing cases (%) N = 1532a Non missing cases (%) N = 1378a Non missing cases (%)
Age (years) 59.0 (47.0, 70.0) 3680 (100%) 62.0 (48.0, 72.0) 1532 (100%) 64.0 (58.0, 72.0) 1378 (100%)
Sex at birth   3680 (100%)   1532 (100%)   1378 (100%)
Men 2,004 (54.5%)   869 (56.7%)   812 (58.9%)  
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 1,977 (53.7%) 3680 (100%) 822 (53.7%) 1532 (100%) 967 (70.2%) 1378 (100%)
 Coronary artery disease 180 (4.9%) 3680 (100%) 76 (5.0%) 1532 (100%) 187 (13.6%) 1378 (100%)
 Heart failure 224 (6.1%) 3680 (100%) 74 (4.8%) 1532 (100%) 188 (13.6%) 1378 (100%)
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter 105 (2.9%) 3680 (100%) 47 (3.1%) 1532 (100%) 74 (5.4%) 1378 (100%)
 Stroke 106 (2.9%) 3680 (100%) 53 (3.5%) 1532 (100%) 85 (6.2%) 1378 (100%)
 COPD 198 (5.4%) 3680 (100%) 94 (6.1%) 1532 (100%) 100 (7.3%) 1378 (100%)
 Diabetes mellitus 1,009 (27.4%) 3680 (100%) 453 (29.6%) 1532 (100%) 616 (44.7%) 1378 (100%)
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) 712 (19.3%) 3680 (100%) 273 (17.8%) 1532 (100%) 454 (32.9%) 1378 (100%)
 Cirrhosis 17 (0.5%) 3680 (100%) 9 (0.6%) 1532 (100%) 42 (3.0%) 1378 (100%)
 Cancer 170 (4.6%) 3680 (100%) 75 (4.9%) 1532 (100%) 147 (10.7%) 1378 (100%)
Number of Comorbiditiesb   3680 (100%)   1532 (100%)   1378 (100%)
 0 1,128 (30.7%)   434 (28.3%)   160 (11.6%)  
 1 1,107 (30.1%)   501 (32.7%)   336 (24.4%)  
 2 923 (25.1%)   392 (25.6%)   394 (28.6%)  
 3 384 (10.4%)   149 (9.7%)   298 (21.6%)  
 ≥ 4 138 (3.8%)   56 (3.7%)   126 (9.1%)  
Clinical assessment at admission
 SF ratio 433.3 (339.3, 452.4) 3582 (97%) 433.3 (342.9, 452.4) 1506 (98%) 202.7 (107.0, 375.0) 1378 (100%)
 Heart rate (bpm) 88.0 (78.0, 100.0) 3545 (96%) 87.0 (77.0, 100.0) 1489 (97%) 87.0 (77.0, 98.0) 1378 (100%)
 Respiratory rate (irpm) 20.0 (18.0, 24.0) 3043 (83%) 20.0 (18.0, 24.0) 1255 (82%) 24.0 (20.0, 28.0) 1378 (100%)
 Glasgow coma scale 15.0 (15.0, 15.0) 3460 (94%) 15.0 (15.0, 15.0) 1441 (94%) NA NA
Systolic blood pressure   3524 (96%)   1489 (97%)   1378 (100%)
 ≥ 90 (mm Hg) 3,338 (94.7%)   1,413 (94.9%)   1,092 (79.2%)  
 < 90 (mm Hg) 45 (1.3%)   23 (1.5%)   20 (1.5%)  
 Inotrope requirement 141 (4.0%)   53 (3.6%)   266 (19.3%)  
Diastolic blood pressure   3489 (95%)   1481 (97%)   1378 (100%)
 > 60 (mm Hg) 2,911 (83.4%)   1,236 (83.5%)   986 (71.6%)  
 ≤ 60 (mm Hg) 437 (12.5%)   192 (13.0%)   126 (9.1%)  
 Inotrope requirement 141 (4.0%)   53 (3.6%)   266 (19.3%)  
 Mechanical ventilation at admission 183 (5.0%) 3676 (100%) 63 (4.1%) 1530 (100%) 393 (28.5%) 1378 (100%)
 Mechanical ventilation after admission 774 (21.0%) 3680 (100%) 276 (18.0%) 1532 (100%) 266 (19.3%) 1378 (100%)
Laboratory parameters
 Haemoglobin (g/L) 13.4 (12.2, 14.5) 3534 (96%) 13.4 (12.1, 14.6) 1491 (97%) 12.4 (10.9, 13.7) 1354 (98%)
 Platelet count (109/L) 193,500.0 (152,000.0, 252,000.0) 3497 (95%) 203,000.0 (156,000.0, 263,850.0) 1478 (96%) 226,000.0 (165,000.0, 304,000.0) 1354 (98%)
 Neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio 4.4 (2.7, 7.4) 3447 (94%) 4.9 (2.9, 8.2) 1437 (94%) 7.5 (4.2, 13.4) 1352 (98%)
 Lactate value 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) 2420 (66%) 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 999 (65%) 1.6 (1.2, 2.0) 1147 (83%)
 C reactive protein (mg/L) 71.0 (34.0, 134.6) 3178 (86%) 73.5 (35.5, 134.8) 1311 (86%) NA NA
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 33.0 (24.0, 47.0) 3310 (90%) 37.0 (27.2, 52.8) 1376 (90%) 12.4 (10.9, 13.7) 1354 (98%)
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 3417 (93%) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1434 (94%) 226,000.0 (165,000.0, 304,000.0) 1354 (98%)
 Sodium (mmol/L) 137.0 (135.0, 140.0) 3215 (87%) 137.0 (134.9, 140.0) 1356 (89%) 7.5 (4.2, 13.4) 1352 (98%)
 Bicarbonate (mEq/L) 23.2 (21.2, 25.2) 2957 (80%) 23.0 (21.0, 25.0) 1217 (79%) 1.6 (1.2, 2.0) 1147 (83%)
 pH 7.4 (7.4, 7.5) 2968 (81%) 7.4 (7.4, 7.5) 1217 (79%) 7.4 (7.3, 7.4) 1294 (94%)
 Arterial pO2 75.0 (63.8, 94.0) 2927 (80%) 74.3 (63.0, 93.7) 1203 (79%) 69.2 (58.5, 84.5) 1092 (79%)
 Arterial pCO2 35.0 (31.9, 39.0) 2940 (80%) 34.0 (30.9, 38.0) 1205 (79%) 38.3 (33.5, 45.6) 1092 (79%)
 Dialysis 343 (9.3%) 3680 (100%) 128 (8.4%) 1532 (100%) 278 (20.2%) 1378 (100%)
 In-hospital mortality 554 (15.1%) 3679 (100%) 229 (14.9%) 1532 (100%) 462 (33.5%) 1378 (100%)
  1. aStatistics presented: n (%); Median (IQR), COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SF ratio SpO2/FiO2 ratio, BMI body mass index, NA not available. bComorbidities included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation or flutter, cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and previous stroke