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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients included in the analysis

From: Safety of single-dose primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

  Primaquine No primaquine All
N n [%] or median [range] N n [%] or median [range] N n [%] or median [range]
Sex: male 5127 2912 [56.8] 1277 723 [56.6] 6404 3638 [56.8]
Age 5129 10.0 [0.5–91.0] 1277 11.0 [1.0–84.0] 6406 10.0 [0.5–91.0]
Age category
 < 5 years 5129 985 [19.2] 1277 213 [16.7] 6406 1198 [18.7]
 5–11 years 5129 1865 [36.4] 1277 429 [33.6] 6406 2294 [35.8]
 12+ years 5129 2279 [44.4] 1277 635 [49.7] 6406 2914 [45.5]
WAZ scorea 663 − 0.5 [− 5.8–4.0] 163 − 0.6 [− 3.8–2.5] 826 − 0.5 [− 5.8–4.0]
Underweighta 663 74 [11.2] 163 23 [14.1] 826 97 [11.7]
Pf Malaria statusb
 No 5129 1477 [28.8] 1277 175 [13.7] 6406 1652 [25.8]
 Yes 5129 1820 [35.5] 1277 1026 [80.3] 6406 2846 [44.4]
 Unknown 5129 1832 [35.7] 1277 76 [6.0] 6406 1908 [29.8]
G6PD status: deficient 4442 309 [7.0] 1099 75 [6.8] 5541 384 [6.9]
Pf parasite count (× 103/μL) 1672 6.3 [0.012–1292] 978 6.7 [0.009–432] 2650 6.5 [0.009–1292]
Hyperparasiteamiac 1672 112 [6.7] 978 35 [3.6] 2650 147 [5.6]
Temperature (°C) 3731 36.9 [34.1–40.3] 1020 37.0 [34.0–40.5] 4751 36.9 [34.0–40.5]
Feverd 3732 523 [14.0] 1021 404 [39.6] 4753 927 [19.5]
Hb (g/dL) 3381 11.9 [6.0–20.8] 1259 11.9 [5.1–18.4] 4640 11.9 [5.1–20.8]
Anaemiae
 No 3381 2938 [86.9] 1259 1052 [83.6] 4640 3990 [86.0]
 Severe 3381 1 [0.0] 1259 34 [2.7] 4640 35 [0.8]
 Moderate 3381 442 [13.1] 1259 173 [13.7] 4640 615 [13.3]
Transmission intensityf
 Low 5129 3970 [77.4] 1277 897 [70.2] 6406 4867 [76.0]
 Moderate 5129 665 [13.0] 1277 205 [16.1] 6406 870 [13.6]
 High 5129 494 [9.6] 1277 175 [13.7] 6406 669 [10.4]
Region
 Africa 5129 3083 [60.1] 1277 1098 [86.0] 6406 4181 [65.3]
 Asia 5129 2046 [39.9] 1277 179 [14.0] 6406 2225 [34.7]
ACT
 AL 5129 1094 [21.3] 1277 469 [36.7] 6406 1563 [24.4]
 AP 5129 286 [5.6] 1277 5 [0.4] 6406 291 [4.5]
 ASAQ 5129 45 [0.9] 1277 47 [3.7] 6406 92 [1.4]
 ASSP 5129 1006 [19.6] 1277 272 [21.3] 6406 1278 [20.0]
 DP 5129 2698 [52.6] 1277 484 [37.9] 6406 3182 [49.7]
Primaquine dose (mg/kg) 5129 0.3 [0.05–1.9]     
Primaquine target dose (mg/kg) 5129 613 [12.0]     
 < 0.25       
 0.25 5129 2540 [49.5]     
 > 0.25 5129 1976 [38.5]     
Day of primaquine administration based on ACT regimen
 0 5129 848 [16.5]     
 1 5129 1737 [33.9]     
 2 5129 2231 [43.5]     
 3 5129 313 [6.1]     
  1. ACT artemisinin combination therapy, AL artemether-lumefnantrine, AP artemisinin-piperaquine, ASAQartesunate-amodiaquine, ASSP artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Pf Plasmodium falciparum, PQ primaquine
  2. aEvaluated in children < 5 years of age, WAZ weight-for-age z-score, underweight is defined as WAZ score < − 2
  3. bNon-detectable malaria includes community participants in the MDA studies (n = 1017) and study participants who were positive for malaria or had detectable gametocytes at screening (n = 635), and unknown malaria includes not tested community participants from MDA studies (n = 1848) and study participants who were positive for malaria or had detectable gametocytes at screening (n = 60)
  4. cDefined as parasitaemia < 100,000/μL
  5. dDefined as temperature > 37.5 °C or history of fever
  6. eSevere anaemia defined as Hb < 7 g/dL, moderate anaemia defined as 7 g/dL < Hb < 10 g/dL
  7. f Transmission intensity defined based on estimates of P. falciparum prevalence rate (PfPR), assuming low transmission for study sites with a PfPR < 0.15, moderate transmission if PfPR 0.15 to < 0.40, and high transmission if PfPR ≥ 0.40