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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Imaging-based body fat depots and new-onset atrial fibrillation in general population: a prospective cohort study

  Imaging method
DXA analysis CT analysis
Number of participants 3468 2139
Follow-up time (years) 9.6 (7.6–10.6) 8.6 (7.9–9.2)
Age (years) 72.4 (6.8) 68.7 (6.4)
Sex (female), N (%) 2 038 (58.8) 1150 (53.8)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.5 (4.0) 27.8 (4.0)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 150.6 (21.1) 146.8 (20.1)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.1 (10.8) 80.3 (10.8)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.65 (0.98) 5.69 (0.98)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.45 (0.39) 1.44 (0.39)
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.90 (0.09) 0.91 (0.09)
Alcohol intake (g/day) 11.5 (13.9) 13.1 (15.2)
Smoking, N (%)
 Never 1013 (29.2) 616 (28.7)
 Ex-smoker 1912 (55.1) 1188 (55.5)
 Current smoker 543 (15.7) 335 (15.7)
Medication, N (%)
 Blood pressure-lowering medication 1534 (44.2) 838 (39.2)
 Lipid-lowering medication 775 (22.3) 504 (23.7)
 Cardiac medication 314 (9.1) 122 (5.7)
History of diseases, N (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 438 (12.6) 267 (12.5)
 Left ventricular hypertrophy 192 (5.5) 118 (5.5)
 Heart failure 129 (3.7) 37 (1.7)
 Coronary heart disease 338 (9.7) 145 (6.8)
 Hypertension 2775 (80.0) 1595 (74.6)
DXA measures
 Fat mass (kg) 26.41 (8.76)
 Percentage of fat mass (%) 36.2 (9.3)
 Lean mass (kg) 46.81 (9.25)
 Percentage of lean mass (%) 63.9 (9.3)
 Gynoid fat mass (kg) 4.05 (1.41)
 Percentage of gynoid fat (%) 6.2 (2.2)
 Android fat mass (kg) 2.51 (0.94)
 Percentage of android fat (%) 3.4 (1.1)
 Total body mass (kg) 73.22 (12.70)
 Android to gynoid fat ratio 0.64 (0.20)
CT measures
 Liver attenuation (HU) 61.6 (55.1–65.6)
 Epicardial fat volume (ml) 108.5 (40.3)
  1. Values are showed as mean (standard deviation) or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and number (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. Abbreviations: DXA, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; CT, computed tomography; CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio