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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer outcomes per 1 mg/L higher CRP concentration based on observation data

From: C-reactive protein and cancer risk: a pan-cancer study of prospective cohort and Mendelian randomization analysis

  Low CRP (≤ 3mg/L)   High CRP (>3 mg/L) FDR-adjusted Pheterogeneity
No (incident cases) Person years HR (95%CI) P No (incident cases) Person years HR (95%CI) P
Overall cancer 327,031 (26,173) 2,237,479 1.04 (1.03,1.06) <0.001 <0.001 93,933 (8,806) 635,846 1.01 (1.01,1.01) <0.001 <0.001
Head & neck (C00–14) 301,209 (351) 2,137,461 1.08 (0.93,1.25) 0.318 0.663 85,283 (156) 603,797 1.02 (0.99,1.05) 0.180 0.482
Esophagus (C15) 301,201 (344) 2,137,476 1.14 (0.99,1.32) 0.078 0.434 85,273 (146) 603,701 1.04 (1.01,1.07) 0.014 0.217
Stomach (C16) 301,087 (229) 2,136,975 1.05 (0.87,1.26) 0.614 0.873 85,232 (106) 603,559 1.03 (0.99,1.07) 0.154 0.833
Colorectal (C18–20) 303,003 (2,145) 2,144,527 1.11 (1.04,1.18) 0.001 0.033 85,917 (791) 605,899 1.02 (1.00,1.03) 0.027 0.006
Liver (C22) 301,037 (179) 2,136,852 1.20 (0.98,1.47) 0.080 0.235 85,230 (103) 603,594 1.01 (0.97,1.05) 0.788 0.096
Gallbladder (C23–24) 300,952 (94) 2,136,473 0.87 (0.65,1.17) 0.351 0.873 85,172 (45) 603,354 0.90 (0.82,0.99) 0.035 0.808
Pancreas (C25) 301,268 (410) 2,137,813 1.14 (0.99,1.30) 0.066 0.163 85,286 (159) 603,798 0.99 (0.95,1.02) 0.510 0.052
Lung (C33–34) 301,995 (1,137) 2,140,855 1.26 (1.16,1.36) <0.001 <0.001 85,882 (755) 606,121 1.03 (1.02,1.05) <0.001 <0.001
Melanoma (C43) 301,966 (1,111) 2,140,358 0.98 (0.9,1.07) 0.655 0.663 85,437 (310) 604,460 1.01 (0.99,1.04) 0.238 0.464
Non-melanotic skin (C44) 309,450 (8,597) 2,170,575 1.01 (0.97,1.04) 0.729 0.945 87,430 (2,305) 612,401 1.01 (1.00,1.02) 0.128 0.945
Breast (C50) 160,803 (3,644) 1,130,896 1.07 (1.02,1.13) 0.003 0.007 51,446 (1,371) 361,233 0.99 (0.98,1.00) 0.137 0.001
Uterus (C54-55) 157,651 (491) 1,119,136 1.13 (1.00,1.28) 0.050 0.226 50,382 (306) 357,326 1.01 (0.99,1.04) 0.321 0.082
Ovary (C56) 157,548 (388) 1,118,715 1.12 (0.97,1.29) 0.126 0.304 50,223 (147) 356,717 1.00 (0.96,1.04) 0.993 0.138
Prostate (C61) 148,034 (4,337) 1,035,523 0.99 (0.95,1.03) 0.649 0.824 36,092 (1,043) 250,894 1.00 (0.99,1.01) 0.811 0.712
Kidney (C64) 301,320 (463) 2,137,990 1.13 (0.99,1.28) 0.066 0.477 85,362 (235) 604,047 1.05 (1.03,1.07) <0.001 0.278
Bladder (C67) 301,270 (412) 2,137,591 1.05 (0.91,1.20) 0.524 0.819 85,281 (154) 603,785 1.01 (0.98,1.05) 0.394 0.670
CNS (C70–72) 301,185 (327) 2,137,370 1.14 (0.98,1.33) 0.092 0.154 85,232 (105) 603,587 0.96 (0.92,1.01) 0.113 0.037
Thyroid (C73) 301,031 (173) 2,136,726 1.07 (0.86,1.32) 0.553 0.819 85,179 (52) 603,385 1.01 (0.96,1.07) 0.617 0.656
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (C82–85, 96) 301,634 (776) 2,139,208 1.08 (0.98,1.20) 0.123 0.477 85,447 (320) 604,276 1.02 (1.00,1.05) 0.040 0.282
Multiple myeloma (C90) 301,172 (315) 2,137,379 0.89 (0.76,1.05) 0.182 0.625 85,211 (84) 603,538 0.96 (0.91,1.02) 0.178 0.398
CLL (C91) 301,166 (308) 2,137,248 0.83 (0.70,0.98) 0.033 0.154 85,205 (78) 603,491 1.00 (0.95,1.05) 0.924 0.042
  1. Adjusted for age, sex (female, male), ethnic (White, Asian, African, mixed background, unknown), education (no degree, degree, unknown), Townsend deprivation index, standing height, BMI, smoking status (never, previous, current, unknown), alcohol use (never, previous, current, unknown), physical activity (<600 MET/week, 600–3000 MET/week, ≥3000 MET/week), family cancer (no, yes), and assessment center
  2. Further adjusted for menopausal (no, yes, not sure, unknown), oral contraceptive use (never, ever, unknown), and hormone replacement therapy (never, ever, unknown) for female
  3. CNS central nervous system, CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia