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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer outcomes among three CRP groups based on observation data (compared with low CRP (≤1 mg/L) group, the hazard ratio for cancer risk among average/high CRP groups (per 1 mg/L higher CRP concentration))

From: C-reactive protein and cancer risk: a pan-cancer study of prospective cohort and Mendelian randomization analysis

  Low CRP (<1 mg/L) Average CRP (1 to 3 mg/L)   High CRP (>3 mg/L) FDR-adjusted Ptrend
  No. (incident cases) No. (incident cases) HR (95%CI) P   No (incident cases) HR (95%CI) P
Overall cancer 166,888 (12,380) 160,143 (13,793) 1.05 (1.02, 1.07) 0.001 <0.001 93,933 (8806) 1.15 (1.12, 1.18) <0.001 <0.001
Head & neck (C00–14) 154,674 (166) 146,535 (185) 1.06 (0.85, 1.31) 0.617 0.006 85,283 (156) 1.46 (1.15, 1.85) 0.002 0.002
Esophagus (C15) 154,643 (136) 146,558 (208) 1.20 (0.96, 1.49) 0.115 0.064 85,273 (146) 1.31 (1.01, 1.68) 0.038 0.038
Stomach (C16) 154,605 (97) 146,482 (132) 1.10 (0.84, 1.44) 0.500 0.064 85,232 (106) 1.38 (1.02, 1.87) 0.034 0.035
Colorectal (C18–20) 155,467 (959) 147,536 (1186) 1.11 (1.02, 1.21) 0.019 <0.001 85,917 (791) 1.27 (1.14, 1.40) <0.001 <0.001
Liver (C22) 154,584 (76) 146,453 (103) 1.10 (0.81, 1.50) 0.523 0.003 85,230 (103) 1.73 (1.25, 2.40) 0.001 0.001
Gallbladder (C23–24) 154,553 (45) 146,399 (49) 0.82 (0.54, 1.24) 0.344 0.818 85,172 (45) 1.06 (0.67, 1.68) 0.805 0.818
Pancreas (C25) 154,678 (170) 146,590 (240) 1.15 (0.94, 1.41) 0.164 0.212 85,286 (159) 1.18 (0.93, 1.50) 0.162 0.154
Lung (C33–34) 154,927 (419) 147,068 (718) 1.37 (1.21, 1.55) <0.001 <0.001 85,882 (755) 2.08 (1.83, 2.36) <0.001 <0.001
Melanoma (C43) 155,064 (559) 146,902 (552) 1.01 (0.89,1.14) 0.936 0.792 85,437 (310) 1.03 (0.89, 1.21) 0.661 0.684
Non-melanotic skin (C44) 158,800 (4294) 150,650 (4,303) 0.99 (0.95,1.04) 0.743 0.818 87,430 (2305) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 0.814 0.785
Breast (C50) 83,335 (1704) 77,468 (1940) 1.15 (1.08, 1.23) <0.001 <0.001 51,446 (1371) 1.20 (1.11, 1.31) <0.001 <0.001
Uterus (C54–55) 81,841 (210) 75,810 (281) 1.01 (0.84, 1.21) 0.957 0.116 50,382 (306) 1.20 (0.97, 1.47) 0.087 0.074
Ovary (C56) 81,804 (173) 75,744 (215) 1.27 (1.03, 1.56) 0.028 0.024 50,223 (147) 1.37 (1.07, 1.76) 0.014 0.011
Prostate (C61) 74,992 (2116) 73,042 (2221) 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 0.832 0.221 36,092 (1043) 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 0.134 0.171
Kidney (C64) 154,689 (181) 146,631 (282) 1.26 (1.04, 1.53) 0.018 <0.001 85,362 (235) 1.64 (1.33, 2.03) <0.001 <0.001
Bladder (C67) 154,689 (181) 146,581 (231) 1.01 (0.83, 1.23) 0.929 0.562 85,281 (154) 1.09 (0.87, 1.38) 0.447 0.460
CNS (C70–72) 154,662 (154) 146,523 (173) 1.11 (0.89, 1.40) 0.346 0.185 85,232 (105) 1.23 (0.94, 1.62) 0.129 0.126
Thyroid (C73) 154,590 (82) 146,441 (91) 1.09 (0.80, 1.49) 0.596 0.818 85,179 (52) 0.93 (0.63, 1.38) 0.711 0.789
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (C82–85, 96) 154,862 (354) 146,772 (422) 1.14 (0.99, 1.32) 0.078 <0.001 85,447 (320) 1.53 (1.30, 1.81) <0.001 <0.001
Multiple myeloma (C90) 154,670 (163) 146,502 (152) 0.82 (0.65, 1.03) 0.082 0.058 85,211 (84) 0.74 (0.55, 0.98) 0.039 0.029
CLL (C91) 154,675 (167) 146,491 (141) 0.74 (0.58, 0.93) 0.010 0.015 85,205 (78) 0.69 (0.51, 0.92) 0.012 0.006
  1. Adjusted for age, sex (female, male), ethnic (White, Asian, African, mixed background, unknown), education (no degree, degree, unknown), Townsend deprivation index, standing height, BMI, smoking status (never, previous, current, unknown), alcohol use (never, previous, current, unknown), physical activity (<600 MET/week, 600–3000 MET/week, ≥3000 MET/week), family cancer (no, yes), and assessment center. Additionally adjusted for menopausal (no, yes, not sure, unknown), oral contraceptive use (never, ever, unknown), hormone replacement therapy (never, ever, unknown) for female. CNS, central nervous system; CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia