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  1. Colorectal cancer is generally diagnosed following a symptomatic presentation to primary care. Although the presenting features of the cancer are well described, the risks they convey are less well known. This...

    Authors: William Hamilton, Robert Lancashire, Debbie Sharp, Tim J Peters, KK Cheng and Tom Marshall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:17

    Content type: Research article

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  2. When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countrie...

    Authors: Yves Gillet, Pirmin Habermehl, Stéphane Thomas, Cécile Eymin and Anne Fiquet

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:16

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hepatitis B outbreaks in healthcare settings are still a serious public health concern in high-income countries. To elucidate the most frequent infection pathways and clinical settings involved, we performed a...

    Authors: Simone Lanini, Vincenzo Puro, Francesco N Lauria, Francesco M Fusco, Carla Nisii and Giuseppe Ippolito

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:15

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal m...

    Authors: Caterina Millino, Marina Fanin, Andrea Vettori, Paolo Laveder, Maria Luisa Mostacciuolo, Corrado Angelini and Gerolamo Lanfranchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:14

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Intradermal vaccination provides direct and potentially more efficient access to the immune system via specialised dendritic cells and draining lymphatic vessels. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety ...

    Authors: Jiri Beran, Arvydas Ambrozaitis, Alvydas Laiskonis, Narseta Mickuviene, Patrick Bacart, Yvan Calozet, Etienne Demanet, Stephane Heijmans, Paul Van Belle, Françoise Weber and Camille Salamand

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:13

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Proteinuria is a defining criterion for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. The amount of protein lost per day has been thought by some to predict both maternal and fetal outcome. The systematic review of 16 prima...

    Authors: G Justus Hofmeyr and Michael Belfort

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:11

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Proteinuria is one of the essential criteria for the clinical diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. Increasing levels of proteinuria is considered to be associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. We aim to det...

    Authors: Shakila Thangaratinam, Arri Coomarasamy, Fidelma O'Mahony, Steve Sharp, Javier Zamora, Khalid S Khan and Khaled MK Ismail

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:10

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tumor metastases pose the greatest threat to a patient's survival, and thus, understanding the biology of disseminated cancer cells is critical for developing effective therapies.

    Authors: Zhiyuan Hu, Cheng Fan, Chad Livasy, Xiaping He, Daniel S Oh, Matthew G Ewend, Lisa A Carey, Subbaya Subramanian, Robert West, Francis Ikpatt, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Matt van de Rijn and Charles M Perou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study w...

    Authors: Eleuse MB Guimarães, Mark DC Guimarães, Maria Aparecida S Vieira, Nádia M Bontempo, Mirian SS Seixas, Mônica SD Garcia, Lyana ES Daud, Rejane LM Côrtes and Maria de Fátima C Alves

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:8

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurological disorder that affects more than 37 million people worldwide. The economic burden of Alzheimer's disease is massive; in the United States alone, the estimated d...

    Authors: Michael S Rafii and Paul S Aisen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:7

    Content type: Minireview

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  11. One of the factors that limits survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the interruption of chest compressions. During ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia the electrocardiogram reflects the probabi...

    Authors: Kenneth Gundersen, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Petter Andreas Steen and Trygve Eftestøl

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Understanding how bone (BM), lean (LM) and fat mass (FM) develop through childhood, puberty and adolescence is vital since it holds key information regarding current and future health. Our study aimed to deter...

    Authors: Sulin Cheng, Eszter Völgyi, Frances A Tylavsky, Arja Lyytikäinen, Timo Törmäkangas, Leiting Xu, Shu Mei Cheng, Heikki Kröger, Markku Alèn and Urho M Kujala

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Vertical and horizontal trust, as dimensions of social capital, may be important determinants of health. As mass media campaigns have been used extensively to promote healthy lifestyles and convey health-relat...

    Authors: Yasuharu Tokuda, Seiji Fujii, Masamine Jimba and Takashi Inoguchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In November 2008, BMC Medicine passed the landmark of its first 5 years of publishing. When we launched the journal with the aim of publishing high quality research of general interest and special importance, we ...

    Authors: Joanne M Appleford, Robin L Cassady-Cain, Jigisha Patel and Melissa L Norton

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:3

    Content type: Editorial

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  15. Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receive inhaled long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. Conventional meta-analyses established that these drugs reduce COPD exac...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Lucas M Bachmann, Jos Kleijnen, Gerben ter Riet and Alphons G Kessels

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There is accumulating evidence for a link between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and diminished health status. To assess PTSD-related biological burden, we measured biological factors th...

    Authors: Pia S Heppner, Eric F Crawford, Uzair A Haji, Niloofar Afari, Richard L Hauger, Boris A Dashevsky, Paul S Horn, Sarah E Nunnink and Dewleen G Baker

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration and changes in cellular processes, including neurogenesis. Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in A...

    Authors: Markus Uhrig, Peter Brechlin, Olaf Jahn, Yuri Knyazev, Annette Weninger, Laura Busia, Kamran Honarnejad, Markus Otto and Tobias Hartmann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:38

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The internet has had a strong impact on how physicians access information and on the development of continuing medical education activities. Evaluation of the effectiveness of these activities has lagged behin...

    Authors: Linda Casebeer, Sally Engler, Nancy Bennett, Martin Irvine, Destry Sulkes, Marc DesLauriers and Sijian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:37

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Excessive alcohol use increases risks of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and several types of cancer, with associated losses of quality of life and life-years. Alcohol taxes can be considered a...

    Authors: Matthijs van den Berg, Pieter HM van Baal, Luqman Tariq, Albertine J Schuit, G Ardine de Wit and Rudolf T Hoogenveen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:36

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Use of fenfluramines for weight loss has been associated with the development of characteristic plaques on cardiac valves causing regurgitation. However, previously published studies of exposure to fenfluramin...

    Authors: Charles F Dahl, Marvin R Allen, Paul M Urie and Paul N Hopkins

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:34

    Content type: Research article

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  21. We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S...

    Authors: Jeanne C Latourelle, Mei Sun, Mark F Lew, Oksana Suchowersky, Christine Klein, Lawrence I Golbe, Margery H Mark, John H Growdon, G Frederick Wooten, Ray L Watts, Mark Guttman, Brad A Racette, Joel S Perlmutter, Anwar Ahmed, Holly A Shill, Carlos Singer…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:32

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Twenty-five years after the discovery and isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus by French and American scientists, much progress has been made in basic research, clinical treatment, and public health p...

    Authors: Mark A Wainberg and Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:31

    Content type: Commentary

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  23. Recent genome wide association (GWA) studies identified two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) (rs10757278 and rs10757274) in the region of the CDK2NA and CDK2NB genes to be consistently associated with the...

    Authors: Abbas Dehghan, Mandy van Hoek, Eric JG Sijbrands, Ben A Oostra, Albert Hofman, Cornelia M van Duijn and Jacqueline CM Witteman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:30

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Randomised trials comparing different drugs head-to-head are extremely valuable for clinical decision-making. However, it is scientifically and ethically sensible to demand strong evidence that a drug is effec...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Daniela Vollenweider, Johann Steurer, Patrick M Bossuyt and Gerben ter Riet

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:28

    Content type: Research article

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  25. We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association...

    Authors: Brian Van Ness, Christine Ramos, Majda Haznadar, Antje Hoering, Jeff Haessler, John Crowley, Susanna Jacobus, Martin Oken, Vincent Rajkumar, Philip Greipp, Bart Barlogie, Brian Durie, Michael Katz, Gowtham Atluri, Gang Fang, Rohit Gupta…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:26

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows incre...

    Authors: Susanna Y Huh, Ruth Andrew, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Ken P Kleinman, Jonathan R Seckl and Matthew W Gillman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous stu...

    Authors: Collins O Odhiambo, Walter Otieno, Christine Adhiambo, Michael M Odera and José A Stoute

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited multi-system disorder. Major features include pigmentary abnormalities, benign tumors of the nerve sheath (neurofibromas), malignant tumors, learning di...

    Authors: Bruce R Korf

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:22

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  29. Bowing and/or pseudarthrosis of the tibia is a known severe complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Mice with conditionally inactivated neurofibromin (Nf1) in the developing limbs and cranium (Nf1Prx1)...

    Authors: Mateusz Kolanczyk, Jirko Kühnisch, Nadine Kossler, Monika Osswald, Sabine Stumpp, Boris Thurisch, Uwe Kornak and Stefan Mundlos

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:21

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The modulation of gap junctional communication between tumor cells and between tumor and vascular endothelial cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis is complex. The notion of a role for loss of gap junction...

    Authors: M Khair Elzarrad, Abu Haroon, Klaus Willecke, Radoslaw Dobrowolski, Mark N Gillespie and Abu-Bakr Al-Mehdi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:20

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used to detect prostate cancer. The low positive predictive value of elevated PSA results in large numbers of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We set out to determine wh...

    Authors: Andrew J Vickers, Angel M Cronin, Gunnar Aus, Carl-Gustav Pihl, Charlotte Becker, Kim Pettersson, Peter T Scardino, Jonas Hugosson and Hans Lilja

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:19

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Both the new generation of antipsychotics and the more traditional antipsychotic drugs produce an important and meaningful improvement in patients with schizophrenia, but most patients are neither cured nor fr...

    Authors: John M Davis and Stefan Leucht

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  33. In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, ther...

    Authors: Rohan Ganguli, Jaspreet S Brar, Ramy Mahmoud, Sally A Berry and Gahan J Pandina

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:17

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Telehealth systems have a large potential for informing public health authorities in an early stage of outbreaks of communicable disease. Influenza and norovirus are common viruses that cause significant respi...

    Authors: Duncan L Cooper, Gillian E Smith, Martyn Regan, Shirley Large and Peter P Groenewegen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  35. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de...

    Authors: Thales Papagiannakopoulos and Kenneth S Kosik

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:15

    Content type: Commentary

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  36. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that d...

    Authors: Joachim Silber, Daniel A Lim, Claudia Petritsch, Anders I Persson, Alika K Maunakea, Mamie Yu, Scott R Vandenberg, David G Ginzinger, C David James, Joseph F Costello, Gabriele Bergers, William A Weiss, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla and J Graeme Hodgson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Inadequate reporting is problematic for several reasons. If authors do not provide sufficient details concerning the conduct of their study, readers are left with an incomplete picture of what was done. As suc...

    Authors: David Moher, Iveta Simera, Kenneth F Schulz, John Hoey and Douglas G Altman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:13

    Content type: Commentary

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  38. Mammographically dense breast tissue is one of the greatest risk factors for developing breast carcinoma. Despite the strong clinical correlation, breast density has not been causally linked to tumorigenesis, ...

    Authors: Paolo P Provenzano, David R Inman, Kevin W Eliceiri, Justin G Knittel, Long Yan, Curtis T Rueden, John G White and Patricia J Keely

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The dominantly inherited condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Finding the causative mutations has great implications for the families. Correlating the ge...

    Authors: Gunilla Kanter-Smoler, Kaisa Fritzell, Anna Rohlin, Yvonne Engwall, Birgitta Hallberg, Annika Bergman, Johan Meuller, Henrik Grönberg, Per Karlsson, Jan Björk and Margareta Nordling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Home care plays a vital role in many health care systems, but there is evidence that appropriate targeting strategies must be used to allocate limited home care resources effectively. The aim of the present st...

    Authors: John P Hirdes, Jeff W Poss and Nancy Curtin-Telegdi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:9

    Content type: Technical advance

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  41. Halfway through the 20th century, views on pain in labour encompassed almost everything from women's self-blame to blaming nurses, midwives, doctors or partners for 'bad experiences'. Soon after that, giving birt...

    Authors: Judith Lumley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:8

    Content type: Commentary

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  42. Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risk...

    Authors: Joanne E Lally, Madeleine J Murtagh, Sheila Macphail and Richard Thomson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Based on a large, representative unscreened cohort from Malmö, Sweden, we have recently reported that a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement at or before age 50 is a strong predictor of prostate ...

    Authors: David Ulmert, Angel M Cronin, Thomas Björk, Matthew F O'Brien, Peter T Scardino, James A Eastham, Charlotte Becker, Göran Berglund, Andrew J Vickers and Hans Lilja

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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