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  1. We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association...

    Authors: Brian Van Ness, Christine Ramos, Majda Haznadar, Antje Hoering, Jeff Haessler, John Crowley, Susanna Jacobus, Martin Oken, Vincent Rajkumar, Philip Greipp, Bart Barlogie, Brian Durie, Michael Katz, Gowtham Atluri, Gang Fang, Rohit Gupta…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:26

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows incre...

    Authors: Susanna Y Huh, Ruth Andrew, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Ken P Kleinman, Jonathan R Seckl and Matthew W Gillman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous stu...

    Authors: Collins O Odhiambo, Walter Otieno, Christine Adhiambo, Michael M Odera and José A Stoute

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited multi-system disorder. Major features include pigmentary abnormalities, benign tumors of the nerve sheath (neurofibromas), malignant tumors, learning di...

    Authors: Bruce R Korf

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:22

    Content type: Commentary

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  5. Bowing and/or pseudarthrosis of the tibia is a known severe complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Mice with conditionally inactivated neurofibromin (Nf1) in the developing limbs and cranium (Nf1Prx1)...

    Authors: Mateusz Kolanczyk, Jirko Kühnisch, Nadine Kossler, Monika Osswald, Sabine Stumpp, Boris Thurisch, Uwe Kornak and Stefan Mundlos

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:21

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The modulation of gap junctional communication between tumor cells and between tumor and vascular endothelial cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis is complex. The notion of a role for loss of gap junction...

    Authors: M Khair Elzarrad, Abu Haroon, Klaus Willecke, Radoslaw Dobrowolski, Mark N Gillespie and Abu-Bakr Al-Mehdi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:20

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used to detect prostate cancer. The low positive predictive value of elevated PSA results in large numbers of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We set out to determine wh...

    Authors: Andrew J Vickers, Angel M Cronin, Gunnar Aus, Carl-Gustav Pihl, Charlotte Becker, Kim Pettersson, Peter T Scardino, Jonas Hugosson and Hans Lilja

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:19

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Both the new generation of antipsychotics and the more traditional antipsychotic drugs produce an important and meaningful improvement in patients with schizophrenia, but most patients are neither cured nor fr...

    Authors: John M Davis and Stefan Leucht

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  9. In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, ther...

    Authors: Rohan Ganguli, Jaspreet S Brar, Ramy Mahmoud, Sally A Berry and Gahan J Pandina

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:17

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Telehealth systems have a large potential for informing public health authorities in an early stage of outbreaks of communicable disease. Influenza and norovirus are common viruses that cause significant respi...

    Authors: Duncan L Cooper, Gillian E Smith, Martyn Regan, Shirley Large and Peter P Groenewegen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  11. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de...

    Authors: Thales Papagiannakopoulos and Kenneth S Kosik

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:15

    Content type: Commentary

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  12. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that d...

    Authors: Joachim Silber, Daniel A Lim, Claudia Petritsch, Anders I Persson, Alika K Maunakea, Mamie Yu, Scott R Vandenberg, David G Ginzinger, C David James, Joseph F Costello, Gabriele Bergers, William A Weiss, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla and J Graeme Hodgson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Inadequate reporting is problematic for several reasons. If authors do not provide sufficient details concerning the conduct of their study, readers are left with an incomplete picture of what was done. As suc...

    Authors: David Moher, Iveta Simera, Kenneth F Schulz, John Hoey and Douglas G Altman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:13

    Content type: Commentary

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  14. Mammographically dense breast tissue is one of the greatest risk factors for developing breast carcinoma. Despite the strong clinical correlation, breast density has not been causally linked to tumorigenesis, ...

    Authors: Paolo P Provenzano, David R Inman, Kevin W Eliceiri, Justin G Knittel, Long Yan, Curtis T Rueden, John G White and Patricia J Keely

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The dominantly inherited condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Finding the causative mutations has great implications for the families. Correlating the ge...

    Authors: Gunilla Kanter-Smoler, Kaisa Fritzell, Anna Rohlin, Yvonne Engwall, Birgitta Hallberg, Annika Bergman, Johan Meuller, Henrik Grönberg, Per Karlsson, Jan Björk and Margareta Nordling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Home care plays a vital role in many health care systems, but there is evidence that appropriate targeting strategies must be used to allocate limited home care resources effectively. The aim of the present st...

    Authors: John P Hirdes, Jeff W Poss and Nancy Curtin-Telegdi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:9

    Content type: Technical advance

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  17. Halfway through the 20th century, views on pain in labour encompassed almost everything from women's self-blame to blaming nurses, midwives, doctors or partners for 'bad experiences'. Soon after that, giving birt...

    Authors: Judith Lumley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:8

    Content type: Commentary

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  18. Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risk...

    Authors: Joanne E Lally, Madeleine J Murtagh, Sheila Macphail and Richard Thomson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Based on a large, representative unscreened cohort from Malmö, Sweden, we have recently reported that a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement at or before age 50 is a strong predictor of prostate ...

    Authors: David Ulmert, Angel M Cronin, Thomas Björk, Matthew F O'Brien, Peter T Scardino, James A Eastham, Charlotte Becker, Göran Berglund, Andrew J Vickers and Hans Lilja

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The UK General Medical Council has emphasized the lack of evidence on whether graduates from different UK medical schools perform differently in their clinical careers. Here we assess the performance of UK gra...

    Authors: IC McManus, Andrew T Elder, Andre de Champlain, Jane E Dacre, Jennifer Mollon and Liliana Chis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In this study we investigated (a) to what extent physicians have experience with performing a range of end-of-life decisions (ELDs), (b) if they have no experience with performing an ELD, would they be willing...

    Authors: Rurik Löfmark, Tore Nilstun, Colleen Cartwright, Susanne Fischer, Agnes van der Heide, Freddy Mortier, Michael Norup, Lorenzo Simonato and Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for pre...

    Authors: Charles Shey Wiysonge, Emmanuel Nomo, Jeanne Mawo, James Ofal, Julienne Mimbouga, Johnson Ticha and Peter M Ndumbe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Outbreak reports suggest that community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections can be life-threatening. We conducted a population based cohort study to assess the magnitude of mort...

    Authors: JA 'Chris' Delaney, Verena Schneider-Lindner, Paul Brassard and Samy Suissa

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, o...

    Authors: Michael D Spencer, T William J Moorhead, Rod J Gibson, Andrew M McIntosh, Jessika ED Sussmann, David GC Owens, Stephen M Lawrie and Eve C Johnstone

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Some patients with long-standing low back pain will benefit from treatment with strong opioids. However, it would be helpful to predict which patients will have a good response. A fixed-term opioid trial has b...

    Authors: Eija Kalso, Karen H Simpson, Robert Slappendel, Joachim Dejonckheere and Ute Richarz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:39

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Arthroscopy is often used to treat patients with chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). As there is a lack of evidence, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of arthroscopy in ...

    Authors: Jyrki A Kettunen, Arsi Harilainen, Jerker Sandelin, Dietrich Schlenzka, Kalevi Hietaniemi, Seppo Seitsalo, Antti Malmivaara and Urho M Kujala

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Most Ministries of Health across Africa invest substantial resources in some form of health management information system (HMIS) to coordinate the routine acquisition and compilation of monthly treatment and a...

    Authors: Peter W Gething, Abdisalan M Noor, Catherine A Goodman, Priscilla W Gikandi, Simon I Hay, Shahnaaz K Sharif, Peter M Atkinson and Robert W Snow

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Minor and mild-major depression are highly prevalent in primary care. There is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of minor and mild-major depression. We compared th...

    Authors: Marleen LM Hermens, Hein PJ van Hout, Berend Terluin, Herman J Adèr, Brenda WJH Penninx, Harm WJ van Marwijk, Judith E Bosmans, Richard van Dyck and Marten de Haan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a method for measuring coronary calcification and has been promoted as a possible non-invasive screening/diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease (CAD). Our objec...

    Authors: Nandini Dendukuri, Keith Chiu and James M Brophy

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbr...

    Authors: Vittoria Colizza, Alain Barrat, Marc Barthélemy and Alessandro Vespignani

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Kisspeptins and their G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54 are required for GnRH release and have been associated with anti-metastatic tumour cell behaviour in model systems. The latter might suggest that their o...

    Authors: Leah M Prentice, Christian Klausen, Steve Kalloger, Martin Köbel, Steven McKinney, Jennifer L Santos, Challayne Kenney, Erika Mehl, C Blake Gilks, Peter Leung, Ken Swenerton, David G Huntsman and Samuel AJ Aparicio

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Meta-analyses of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for preventing contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) have led to disparate conclusions. Here we examine and attempt to resolve the heterogeneity evident among these trials.

    Authors: Denise A Gonzales, Kelly J Norsworthy, Steven J Kern, Steve Banks, Pamela C Sieving, Robert A Star, Charles Natanson and Robert L Danner

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Adolescent reproductive health has not continued to receive the attention it deserves since the start of the HIV epidemic. In South Africa, high numbers of adolescent women report pregnancies that are unwanted...

    Authors: Catherine MacPhail, Audrey E Pettifor, Sophie Pascoe and Helen V Rees

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide.

    Authors: John PA Ioannidis, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Fotini K Kavvoura, Athina Tatsioni, Evangelos Evangelou, Ioanna Kouri, Despina G Contopoulos-Ioannidis and George Liberopoulos

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:30

    Content type: Correspondence

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  35. Inactivated HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; Sendai virus) particles (HVJ envelope vector; HVJ-E can incorporate and deliver plasmid DNA, siRNA, antibody and peptide and anti-cancer drugs to cells both in vi...

    Authors: Hirokazu Kawano, Shintarou Komaba, Toshihide Kanamori and Yasufumi Kaneda

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual tre...

    Authors: Yaobi Zhang, Artemis Koukounari, Narcis Kabatereine, Fiona Fleming, Francis Kazibwe, Edridah Tukahebwa, J Russell Stothard, Joanne P Webster and Alan Fenwick

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In the United Kingdom, specialist treatment and intervention services for doctors are underdeveloped. The MedNet programme, created in 1997 and funded by the London Deanery, aims to fill this gap by providing ...

    Authors: Antony I Garelick, Samantha R Gross, Irene Richardson, Matthias von der Tann, Julia Bland and Rob Hale

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Diabetes is known to be associated with cancer of the pancreas, though there is some debate as to whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease. We investigated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a ...

    Authors: MC Perrin, MB Terry, K Kleinhaus, L Deutsch, R Yanetz, E Tiram, R Calderon, Y Friedlander, O Paltiel and S Harlap

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The threat of a global influenza pandemic and the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations (2005) highlight the value of well-coordinated, functional disease surveillanc...

    Authors: Helen N Perry, Sharon M McDonnell, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Peter Nsubuga, Stella Chungong, Mac W Otten Jr, Paul S Lusamba-dikassa and Stephen B Thacker

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:24

    Content type: Research article

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  40. As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important po...

    Authors: John Furler, Elizabeth Harris, Mark Harris, Lucio Naccarella, Doris Young and Teri Snowdon

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There is growing evidence that gene-gene interactions are ubiquitous in determining the susceptibility to common human diseases. The investigation of such gene-gene interactions presents new statistical challe...

    Authors: Laurent Briollais, Yuanyuan Wang, Isaac Rajendram, Venus Onay, Ellen Shi, Julia Knight and Hilmi Ozcelik

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Statins are a class of medications that reduce cholesterol by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Whether statins can benefit patients with dementia remains unclear because of conflicti...

    Authors: Benjamin Wolozin, Stanley W Wang, Nien-Chen Li, Austin Lee, Todd A Lee and Lewis E Kazis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Migraine aura may be difficult to differentiate from transient ischemic attacks and other transient neurological disorders in pregnant women. The aims of the present study were to investigate and diagnose all ...

    Authors: Janne Marit Ertresvg, Lars Jacob Stovner, Lene Ekern Kvavik, Hans-Jorgen Johnsen, John-Anker Zwart, Grethe Helde and Gunnar Bovim

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from mutation of the dystrophin gene, causing skeletal and cardiac muscle loss of function. The mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy is widely utilized to evaluate...

    Authors: Richard T Hinkle, Frank R Lefever, Elizabeth T Dolan, Deborah L Reichart, Jefferey A Dietrich, Kathryn E Gropp, Robert I Thacker, Jeffrey P Demuth, Paula J Stevens, Xiaoyan A Qu, Alex R Varbanov, Feng Wang and Robert J Isfort

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as important drug targets for diabetes. Drugs that activate PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are widely used for treatment of Type ...

    Authors: Maria E Ramos-Nino, Charles D MacLean and Benjamin Littenberg

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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