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  1. Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among...

    Authors: Motoki Iwasaki, Yoshio Kasuga, Shiro Yokoyama, Hiroshi Onuma, Hideki Nishimura, Ritsu Kusama, Gerson Shigeaki Hamada, Ines Nobuko Nishimoto, Maria do Socorro Maciel, Juvenal Motola Jr, Fábio Martins Laginha, Roberto Anzai and Shoichiro Tsugane
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:16
  2. A large number of scientists from a wide range of medical and surgical disciplines have reported on the existence and characteristics of the clinical syndrome of pelvic girdle pain during or after pregnancy. T...

    Authors: Nikolaos K Kanakaris, Craig S Roberts and Peter V Giannoudis
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:15
  3. The hunt for the genetic contributors to complex disease has used a number of strategies, resulting in the identification of variants associated with many of the common diseases affecting society. However most...

    Authors: Matthew A Deardorff, Jesus Sainz and Struan FA Grant
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:13
  4. During gene conversion, genetic information is transferred unidirectionally between highly homologous but non-allelic regions of DNA. While germ-line gene conversion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ...

    Authors: Kenneth Andrew Ross
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:12
  5. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ischemia is the leading cause of AKI, and short of supportive measures, no currently available therapy can effectiv...

    Authors: Raj Munshi, Christine Hsu and Jonathan Himmelfarb
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:11
  6. Colon cancer is a public health problem worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection for stage III colon cancer has been shown to improve both progression-free and overall survival, and is current...

    Authors: Christos A Papadimitriou, Pavlos Papakostas, Maria Karina, Lia Malettou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, George Pentheroudakis, Epaminontas Samantas, Aristotelis Bamias, Dimosthenis Miliaras, George Basdanis, Nikolaos Xiros, George Klouvas, Dimitrios Bafaloukos, Georgia Kafiri, Irene Papaspirou, Dimitrios Pectasides…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:10
  7. Focal adhesion (FA) family genes have been studied as candidate genes for osteoporosis, but the results of genetic association studies (GASs) are controversial. To clarify these data, a systematic assessment o...

    Authors: Elias Zintzaras, Chrysoula Doxani, Theocharis Koufakis, Alkibiadis Kastanis, Paraskevi Rodopoulou and Theofilos Karachalios
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:9
  8. Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studie...

    Authors: Carel Bron, Arthur de Gast, Jan Dommerholt, Boudewijn Stegenga, Michel Wensing and Rob AB Oostendorp
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:8
  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become a major cause of death worldwide. Studies on the variability in the estimates of key epidemiological parameters of COPD may contribute to bet...

    Authors: Kokuvi Atsou, Christos Chouaid and Gilles Hejblum
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:7
  10. The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care policy since 2003. Detailed research on ...

    Authors: Feng Zhou, Gerald F Kominski, Han-Zhu Qian, Jiansheng Wang, Song Duan, Zhiwei Guo and Xinping Zhao
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:6
  11. Persistent disabilities are key manifestations of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, especially incapacitating polyarthralgia and fatigue. So far, little is known about their impact on health status. The pre...

    Authors: Patrick Gérardin, Adrian Fianu, Denis Malvy, Corinne Mussard, Karim Boussaïd, Olivier Rollot, Alain Michault, Bernard-Alex Gaüzere, Gérard Bréart and François Favier
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:5
  12. Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in rheumatoid arthritis. ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 (ABCA1) and 27-Hydroxylase (HY27) are known antiathe...

    Authors: Der-Yuan Chen, Hui-Min Chih, Joung-Liang Lan, Hsin-Yueh Chang, Wei-Wen Chen and En-Pei Isabel Chiang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:4
  13. Dual antiplatelet therapy using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) and clopidogrel is of great importance following coronary stenting. However, the variable platelet inhibitory effectiveness compromises the a...

    Authors: Horst Neubauer, Andreas FC Kaiser, Heinz G Endres, Jan C Krüger, Andreas Engelhardt, Sebastian Lask, Fenena Pepinghege, Andreas Kusber and Andreas Mügge
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:3
  14. Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology o...

    Authors: P Wei, LC Milbauer, J Enenstein, J Nguyen, W Pan and RP Hebbel
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:2
  15. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after a hospital admission. Although it is mainly considered a complication of surgery, it often occurs in people who have not undergone surgery...

    Authors: Sreeram V Ramagopalan, Clare J Wotton, Adam E Handel, David Yeates and Michael J Goldacre
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:1
  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a popular class of antidepressants, may increase breast cancer risk by stimulating the secretion of prolactin, a potential tumour promoter. We evaluated the eff...

    Authors: JE Ashbury, LE Lévesque, PA Beck and KJ Aronson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:90
  17. In view of the growing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of better diagnostic tools and more effective therapeutic interventions. At the earliest sta...

    Authors: Orestes V Forlenza, Breno S Diniz and Wagner F Gattaz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:89
  18. Obesity is a complex disease with multiple well-defined risk factors. Nevertheless, susceptibility to obesity and its sequelae within obesogenic environments varies greatly from one person to the next, suggest...

    Authors: Paul W Franks and Charlotte Ling
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:88
  19. Despite evidence linking obesity to impaired immune function, little is known about the specific mechanisms. Because of emerging evidence that immune responses are epigenetically regulated, we hypothesized tha...

    Authors: Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Harold Snieder, Shaoyong Su, David Munn, Gregory Harshfield, Bernard L Maria, Yanbin Dong, Frank Treiber, Bernard Gutin and Huidong Shi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:87
  20. Endoglin is involved in the regulation of endothelial function, but there are no studies concerning its relation with hypertension- and diabetes-associated pathologies. Thus, we studied the relationship betwee...

    Authors: Ana M Blázquez-Medela, Luis García-Ortiz, Manuel A Gómez-Marcos, José I Recio-Rodríguez, Angel Sánchez-Rodríguez, José M López-Novoa and Carlos Martínez-Salgado
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:86
  21. Although extensive research exists on informal long-term care, little work has examined the clinical significance of transitions in family caregiving due to a lack of established clinical cut-points on key mea...

    Authors: Joseph E Gaugler, Mary S Mittelman, Kenneth Hepburn and Robert Newcomer
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:85
  22. Nanooncology, the application of nanobiotechnology to the management of cancer, is currently the most important chapter of nanomedicine. Nanobiotechnology has refined and extended the limits of molecular diagn...

    Authors: KK Jain
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:83
  23. There is little doubt that women experience a heightened psychiatric morbidity compared to men. A growing body of evidence suggests that, for some women, the menopausal transition and early postmenopausal year...

    Authors: Claudio N Soares
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:79
  24. Noninvasive direct vessel wall (plaque) imaging may provide a good opportunity to study unique aspects of atherosclerotic lesions in different populations. The article published by Esposito et al. provides new in...

    Authors: Chun Yuan and Jarett D Berry
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:78
  25. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a common condition in which patients lose the hearing in one ear within 3 days. Systemic glucocorticoid treatments have been used as standard therapy for SSHL; howev...

    Authors: Takayuki Nakagawa, Tatsunori Sakamoto, Harukazu Hiraumi, Yayoi S Kikkawa, Norio Yamamoto, Kiyomi Hamaguchi, Kazuya Ono, Masaya Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Tabata, Satoshi Teramukai, Shiro Tanaka, Harue Tada, Rie Onodera, Atsushi Yonezawa, Ken-ichi Inui and Juichi Ito
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:76
  26. While several recent large randomized trials found clinically relevant effects of acupuncture over no treatment or routine care, blinded trials comparing acupuncture to sham interventions often reported only m...

    Authors: Klaus Linde, Karin Niemann, Antonius Schneider and Karin Meissner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:75
  27. An accident or a catastrophic disease may occasionally lead to brain death (BD) during pregnancy. Management of brain-dead pregnant patients needs to follow special strategies to support the mother in a way th...

    Authors: Majid Esmaeilzadeh, Christine Dictus, Elham Kayvanpour, Farbod Sedaghat-Hamedani, Michael Eichbaum, Stefan Hofer, Guido Engelmann, Hamidreza Fonouni, Mohammad Golriz, Jan Schmidt, Andreas Unterberg, Arianeb Mehrabi and Rezvan Ahmadi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:74
  28. Malignant gliomas are among the most devastating tumors for which conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcome. Despite advances in imaging, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, su...

    Authors: Maria Maddalena Lino, Adrian Merlo and Jean-Louis Boulay
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:72
  29. There is worldwide debate about the appropriateness of caesarean sections performed without medical indications. In this analysis, we aim to further investigate the relationship between caesarean section witho...

    Authors: JP Souza, AM Gülmezoglu, P Lumbiganon, M Laopaiboon, G Carroli, B Fawole and P Ruyan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:71
  30. The incorporation of sex and gender-specific analysis in medical research is increasing due to pressure from public agencies, funding bodies, and the clinical and research community. However, generations of kn...

    Authors: Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, Roza Parol, Stephan Krohn, Robert Preißner and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:70
  31. Cancer metastasis contributes significantly to cancer mortality and is facilitated by lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. A new splicing variant, endogenous soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-...

    Authors: Masa-Aki Shibata, Jayakrishna Ambati, Eiko Shibata, Romulo JC Albuquerque, Junji Morimoto, Yuko Ito and Yoshinori Otsuki
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:69
  32. Some patients awaken from coma (that is, open the eyes) but remain unresponsive (that is, only showing reflex movements without response to command). This syndrome has been coined vegetative state. We here presen...

    Authors: Steven Laureys, Gastone G Celesia, Francois Cohadon, Jan Lavrijsen, José León-Carrión, Walter G Sannita, Leon Sazbon, Erich Schmutzhard, Klaus R von Wild, Adam Zeman and Giuliano Dolce
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:68
  33. The commonest histological type of renal cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc RCC), is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor. VHL inactivation l...

    Authors: Calida S Neal, Michael Z Michael, Lesley H Rawlings, Mark B Van der Hoek and Jonathan M Gleadle
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:64
  34. The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if t...

    Authors: Elizabeth Murray, Shaun Treweek, Catherine Pope, Anne MacFarlane, Luciana Ballini, Christopher Dowrick, Tracy Finch, Anne Kennedy, Frances Mair, Catherine O'Donnell, Bie Nio Ong, Tim Rapley, Anne Rogers and Carl May
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:63
  35. The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, ...

    Authors: Sara Schroter, Trish Groves and Liselotte Højgaard
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:62
  36. Internet addiction, while not yet officially codified within a psychopathological framework, is growing both in prevalence and within the public consciousness as a potentially problematic condition with many p...

    Authors: Dimitri A Christakis
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:61
  37. Exercise-based therapy is known to enhance motor recovery after stroke but the most appropriate amount, i.e. the dose, of therapy is unknown. To determine the strength of current evidence for provision of a hi...

    Authors: Emma V Cooke, Kathryn Mares, Allan Clark, Raymond C Tallis and Valerie M Pomeroy
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:60
  38. The Internet is used increasingly by providers as a tool for disseminating pain-related health information and by patients as a resource about health conditions and treatment options. However, health informati...

    Authors: Jatin Kaicker, Victoria Borg Debono, Wilfred Dang, Norman Buckley and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:59
  39. Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease, characterized by rash-associated localized pain. Its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), is difficult to treat and may last for months to years in the wake...

    Authors: Giustino Parruti, Monica Tontodonati, Cristina Rebuzzi, Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Augusta Consorte, Adriana Agostinone, Francesco Di Masi, Gabriele Congedo, Domenico D'Antonio, Carla Granchelli, Claudio D'Amario, Carlo Carunchio, Lucio Pippa, Lamberto Manzoli and Antonio Volpi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:58
  40. Decision making is a complex process and it is particularly challenging to make decisions with, or for, patients who are near the end of their life. Some of those challenges will not be resolved - due to our h...

    Authors: Linda Emanuel and Karen Glasser Scandrett
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2010 8:57