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  1. There is now evolving data exploring the relationship between depression and various individual lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. While this data is...

    Authors: Jerome Sarris, Russell Thomson, Fiona Hargraves, Melissa Eaton, Michael de Manincor, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Alison R. Yung and Joseph Firth

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:354

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Keratins (Ks) represent tissue-specific proteins. K18 is produced in hepatocytes while K19, the most widely used ductular reaction (DR) marker, is found in cholangiocytes and hepatic progenitor cells. K18-base...

    Authors: Karim Hamesch, Nurdan Guldiken, Mahmoud Aly, Norbert Hüser, Daniel Hartmann, Pierre Rufat, Marianne Ziol, Katharina Remih, Georg Lurje, Bernhard Scheiner, Christian Trautwein, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger, Sebastian Mueller, Tony Bruns, Pierre Nahon…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:336

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all children by the age of 2 years, with the risk of hospitalisation highest in the first 6 months of life. Development and licensure of a vaccine to prevent se...

    Authors: Patricia T. Campbell, Nicholas Geard and Alexandra B. Hogan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:319

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Genome-wide and clinical studies have linked the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with hypertension, whilst limited evidence shows that intervention with rib...

    Authors: Mary Ward, Catherine F. Hughes, J. J. Strain, Rosie Reilly, Conal Cunningham, Anne M. Molloy, Geraldine Horigan, Miriam Casey, Kevin McCarroll, Maurice O’Kane, Michael J. Gibney, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, Breige A. McNulty, Adrian McCann, Laura Kirwan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:318

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders that increase physical health risks and are leading causes of global disability. Several forms of physical fitness could be modifiable risk factors for common...

    Authors: Aaron A. Kandola, David P. J. Osborn, Brendon Stubbs, Karmel W. Choi and Joseph F. Hayes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:303

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Frailty has been associated with worse prognosis following COVID-19 infection. While several studies have reported the association between frailty and COVID-19 mortality or length of hospital stay, there have ...

    Authors: Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Peter Hanlon, Stuart R. Gray, Paul Welsh, Jason M. R. Gill, Hamish Foster, S. Vittal Katikireddi, Donald Lyall, Daniel F. Mackay, Catherine A. O’Donnell, Naveed Sattar, Barbara I. Nicholl, Jill P. Pell, Bhautesh D. Jani, Frederick K. Ho, Frances S. Mair…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:355

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The need for better methods for evaluation in health research has been widely recognised. The ‘complexity turn’ has drawn attention to the limitations of relying on causal inference from randomised controlled ...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Judith Green, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Mark Petticrew, Trish Greenhalgh, Benjamin Hanckel and Sara Shaw

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:301

    Content type: Opinion

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  8. Clinical scores to determine early (6-month) antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality risk have not been developed for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to 70% of people living with HIV. In the absence of validated...

    Authors: Andrew F. Auld, Katherine Fielding, Tefera Agizew, Alice Maida, Anikie Mathoma, Rosanna Boyd, Anand Date, Sherri L. Pals, George Bicego, Yuliang Liu, Ray W. Shiraishi, Peter Ehrenkranz, Christopher Serumola, Unami Mathebula, Heather Alexander, Salome Charalambous…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:311

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been ...

    Authors: Dietrich Rothenbacher, Martin Rehm, Licia Iacoviello, Simona Costanzo, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Jill J. F. Belch, Stefan Söderberg, Johan Hultdin, Veikko Salomaa, Pekka Jousilahti, Allan Linneberg, Susana Sans, Teresa Padró, Barbara Thorand, Christa Meisinger, Frank Kee…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:300

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Mitigating or reducing the risk of medication harm is a global policy priority. But evidence reflecting preventable medication harm in medical care and the factors that derive this harm remain unknown. Therefo...

    Authors: Alexander Hodkinson, Natasha Tyler, Darren M. Ashcroft, Richard N. Keers, Kanza Khan, Denham Phipps, Aseel Abuzour, Peter Bower, Anthony Avery, Stephen Campbell and Maria Panagioti

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:313

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Wearable biometric monitoring devices (BMDs) have the potential to transform the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by shifting the collection of outcome data from single measurements at predefined...

    Authors: Carolina Graña Possamai, Philippe Ravaud, Lina Ghosn and Viet-Thi Tran

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:310

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Wide implementation of mammography screening has resulted in increased numbers of women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in situ. We aimed to determine the risk of invasive breast cancer in relatives of patient...

    Authors: Trasias Mukama, Mahdi Fallah, Hermann Brenner, Xing Xu, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist and Elham Kharazmi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:295

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother’s psychological disorder and infant’s developmental delay is unknown.

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Lian Chen, Tianchen Wu, Huifeng Shi, Qin Li, Hai Jiang, Danni Zheng, Xiaoli Wang, Yuan Wei, Yangyu Zhao and Jie Qiao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:347

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are pivotal to detecting current coronavirus d...

    Authors: Sue Mallett, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Stuart A. Taylor, Naomi S. Sakai, Kile Green, Jana Suklan, Chris Hyde, Bethany Shinkins, Zhivko Zhelev, Jaime Peters, Philip J. Turner, Nia W. Roberts, Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Robert Wolff, Penny Whiting…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:346

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The STREAM trial demonstrated that a 9–11-month “short” regimen had non-inferior efficacy and comparable safety to a 20+ month “long” regimen for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Imbalance i...

    Authors: P. P. J. Phillips, A. Van Deun, S. Ahmed, R. L. Goodall, S. K. Meredith, F. Conradie, C-Y Chiang, I. D. Rusen and A. J. Nunn

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:314

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon β (IFNβ) develop ADA,...

    Authors: Till F. M. Andlauer, Jenny Link, Dorothea Martin, Malin Ryner, Christina Hermanrud, Verena Grummel, Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Lilian Aly, Christiane Gasperi, Benjamin Knier, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen, Finn Sellebjerg, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:298

    Content type: Research article

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  17. At the end of life, formal care costs are high. Informal care (IC) costs, and their effects on outcomes, are not known. This study aimed to determine the IC costs for older adults in the last 3 months of life,...

    Authors: Irene J. Higginson, Deokhee Yi, Bridget M. Johnston, Karen Ryan, Regina McQuillan, Lucy Selman, Stephen Z. Pantilat, Barbara A. Daveson, R. Sean Morrison and Charles Normand

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:344

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Epidemics of infectious disease occur frequently in low-income and humanitarian settings and pose a serious threat to populations. However, relatively little is known about responses to these epidemics. Robust...

    Authors: Abdihamid Warsame, Jillian Murray, Amy Gimma and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:315

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Early identification of women at risk during pregnancy is required to plan management. Although there are many published pred...

    Authors: Kym I. E. Snell, John Allotey, Melanie Smuk, Richard Hooper, Claire Chan, Asif Ahmed, Lucy C. Chappell, Peter Von Dadelszen, Marcus Green, Louise Kenny, Asma Khalil, Khalid S. Khan, Ben W. Mol, Jenny Myers, Lucilla Poston, Basky Thilaganathan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:302

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Research comparing sex differences in the effects of antipsychotic medications on acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) is limited and the findings ambiguous. This study aimed to investigate these associations wi...

    Authors: Francisco T. T. Lai, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W. Mercer, Daniel J. Smith, Benjamin H. K. Yip, Gary K. K. Chung, Kam-Pui Lee, Roger Y. Chung, Patsy Y. K. Chau, Eliza L. Y. Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh and Samuel Y. S. Wong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:289

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:339

  21. Malaria is associated with Burkitt lymphoma among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. No longitudinal studies have assessed the long-term risk of other lymphoma or cancer overall. Here, we investigated the risk of...

    Authors: Katja Wyss, Fredrik Granath, Andreas Wångdahl, Therese Djärv, Michael Fored, Pontus Naucler and Anna Färnert

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:296

    Content type: Research article

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  22. An overview of the diagnostic performance of natriuretic peptides (NPs) for the detection of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in a non-acute setting, is cu...

    Authors: Sharon Remmelzwaal, Adriana J. van Ballegooijen, Linda J. Schoonmade, Elisa Dal Canto, M. Louis Handoko, Michiel T. H. M. Henkens, Vanessa van Empel, Stephane R. B. Heymans and Joline W. J. Beulens

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:290

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Healthcare is amongst the most complex of human systems. Coordinating activities and integrating newer with older ways of treating patients while delivering high-quality, safe care, is challenging. Three landm...

    Authors: Jeffrey Braithwaite, Charles Vincent, Ezequiel Garcia-Elorrio, Yuichi Imanaka, Wendy Nicklin, Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey and David W. Bates

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:340

    Content type: Correspondence

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  24. Advances in antiretroviral therapies have greatly improved the survival of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PLWH); yet, PLWH have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than th...

    Authors: Haoxiang Cheng, Anshuman Sewda, Carla Marquez-Luna, Sierra R. White, Bridget M. Whitney, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Robin M. Nance, Won Jun Lee, Mari M. Kitahata, Michael S. Saag, Amanda Willig, Joseph J. Eron, W. Christopher Mathews, Peter W. Hunt, Richard D. Moore, Allison Webel…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:288

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:114

  25. Many studies detect associations between parent behaviour and child symptoms of anxiety and depression. Despite knowledge that anxiety and depression are influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and enviro...

    Authors: Rosa Cheesman, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Yasmin I. Ahmadzadeh, Line C. Gjerde, Laurie J. Hannigan, Alexandra Havdahl, Alexander I. Young, Thalia C. Eley, Pål R. Njølstad, Per Magnus, Ole A. Andreassen, Eivind Ystrom and Tom A. McAdams

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:284

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Novel biological and precision therapies and their associated predictive biomarker tests offer opportunities for increased tumor response, reduced adverse effects, and improved survival. This systematic review...

    Authors: Ruth P. Norris, Rosie Dew, Linda Sharp, Alastair Greystoke, Stephen Rice, Kristina Johnell and Adam Todd

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:282

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Asymptomatic or subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections are often unreported, which means that confirmed case counts may not accurately reflect underlying epidemic dynamics. Understanding the level of ascertainment ...

    Authors: Timothy W. Russell, Nick Golding, Joel Hellewell, Sam Abbott, Lawrence Wright, Carl A. B. Pearson, Kevin van Zandvoort, Christopher I. Jarvis, Hamish Gibbs, Yang Liu, Rosalind M. Eggo, W. John Edmunds and Adam J. Kucharski

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:332

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Frailty is common in clinical practice, but trials rarely report on participant frailty. Consequently, clinicians and guideline-developers assume frailty is largely absent from trials and have questioned the r...

    Authors: Peter Hanlon, Elaine Butterly, Jim Lewsey, Stefan Siebert, Frances S. Mair and David A. McAllister

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:309

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Adjuvant chemotherapy induces weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in about a third of women. The mechanisms underlying these events have not been defined. This study assessed the association bet...

    Authors: Atara Uzan-Yulzari, Maya Morr, Hala Tareef-Nabwani, Oren Ziv, Dafna Magid-Neriya, Ran Armoni, Efrat Muller, Anca Leibovici, Elhanan Borenstein, Yoram Louzoun, Ayelet Shai and Omry Koren

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:281

    Content type: Research article

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  30. There is currently no existing evidence on the effects of personalised risk information on uptake of colonoscopy following first line screening for colorectal cancer. This study aimed to measure the impact of ...

    Authors: Jayne Digby, Ronan E. O’Carroll, Julie A. Chambers and Robert J. C. Steele

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:285

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. However, little is known about the association between pregnant women with COVID-19 and the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

    Authors: Rong Yang, Hui Mei, Tongzhang Zheng, Qiang Fu, Yiming Zhang, Stephen Buka, Xinan Yao, Zezhong Tang, Xichi Zhang, Lin Qiu, Yaqi Zhang, Jieqiong Zhou, Jiangxia Cao, Youjie Wang and Aifen Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:330

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Potential routes whereby systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may drive the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, even in an environment of low cholestero...

    Authors: Gerwyn Morris, Basant K. Puri, Lisa Olive, Andre Carvalho, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Lise Tuset Gustad and Michael Maes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:305

    Content type: Review

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  33. To calculate hospital surge capacity, achieved via hospital provision interventions implemented for the emergency treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other patients through March to May 2020; ...

    Authors: Ruth McCabe, Nora Schmit, Paula Christen, Josh C. D’Aeth, Alessandra Løchen, Dheeya Rizmie, Shevanthi Nayagam, Marisa Miraldo, Paul Aylin, Alex Bottle, Pablo N. Perez-Guzman, Azra C. Ghani, Neil M. Ferguson, Peter J. White and Katharina Hauck

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:329

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Classification of primary central nervous system tumors according to the World Health Organization guidelines follows the integration of histologic interpretation with molecular information and aims at providi...

    Authors: H. D. Nguyen, A. Allaire, P. Diamandis, M. Bisaillon, M. S. Scott and M. Richer

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:280

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Childhood trauma increases the risk for adult obesity through multiple complex pathways, and the neural substrates are yet to be determined.

    Authors: Qiang Luo, Lingli Zhang, Chu-Chung Huang, Yan Zheng, Jonathan W. Kanen, Qi Zhao, Ye Yao, Erin B. Quinlan, Tianye Jia, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L. W. Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:278

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The health impact of COVID-19 may differ in African settings as compared to countries in Europe or China due to demographic, epidemiological, environmental and socio-economic factors. We evaluated strategies t...

    Authors: Kevin van Zandvoort, Christopher I. Jarvis, Carl A. B. Pearson, Nicholas G. Davies, Ruwan Ratnayake, Timothy W. Russell, Adam J. Kucharski, Mark Jit, Stefan Flasche, Rosalind M. Eggo and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:324

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Despite the increasing understanding of factors that might underlie psychiatric disorders, prospectively detecting shifts from a healthy towards a symptomatic state has remained unattainable. A complex systems...

    Authors: Marieke J. Schreuder, Catharina A. Hartman, Sandip V. George, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Bart P. F. Rutten, Nele Jacobs, Jim van Os, Johanna T. W. Wigman and Marieke Wichers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:269

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD) are believed to affect women’s long-term health including cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the biological underpinnings are largely unknown. We aimed to test whether ma...

    Authors: Xiumei Hong, Boyang Zhang, Liming Liang, Yan Zhang, Yuelong Ji, Guoying Wang, Hongkai Ji, Clary B. Clish, Irina Burd, Colleen Pearson, Barry Zuckerman, Frank B. Hu and Xiaobin Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:277

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In the network approach to psychopathology, psychiatric disorders are considered networks of causally active symptoms (nodes), with node centrality hypothesized to reflect symptoms’ causal influence within a n...

    Authors: Tobias R. Spiller, Ofir Levi, Yuval Neria, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Yair Bar-Haim and Amit Lazarov

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:297

    Content type: Research article

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  40. After experiencing a sharp growth in COVID-19 cases early in the pandemic, South Korea rapidly controlled transmission while implementing less stringent national social distancing measures than countries in Eu...

    Authors: Amy Dighe, Lorenzo Cattarino, Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg, Janetta Skarp, Natsuko Imai, Sangeeta Bhatia, Katy A. M. Gaythorpe, Kylie E. C. Ainslie, Marc Baguelin, Samir Bhatt, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Nicholas F. Brazeau, Laura V. Cooper, Helen Coupland, Zulma Cucunuba, Ilaria Dorigatti…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:321

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There is conflicting evidence in the literature on the association between (elevated) serum B12 concentrations and subsequent disease or mortality. We evaluated in the NHANES general population the association...

    Authors: Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel, M. Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Ralph Green and Rijk O. B. Gans

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:307

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) causes atherosclerotic disease, as demonstrated in experimental and epidemiological cohorts, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies.

    Authors: Peter E. Penson, Matteo Pirro and Maciej Banach

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:320

    Content type: Opinion

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  43. Although exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with alterations of DNA methylation in the cord blood or placental cells, whether such exposure before pregnancy could induce epigene...

    Authors: Sophie Rousseaux, Emie Seyve, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Meriem Benmerad, Marie-Aline Charles, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Valérie Siroux, Remy Slama, Jorg Tost, Daniel Vaiman, Saadi Khochbin and Johanna Lepeule

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:306

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that results from cardio-pulmonary dysfunction with the pathology largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is an important...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Megan Griffiths, Melanie K. Nies, Stephanie Brandal, Rachel Damico, Dhananjay Vaidya, Xueting Tao, Catherine E. Simpson, Todd M. Kolb, Stephen C. Mathai, Michael W. Pauciulo, William C. Nichols, David D. Ivy, Eric D. Austin, Paul M. Hassoun and Allen D. Everett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:268

    Content type: Research article

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