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  1. A recent estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that 161 million persons worldwide have visual impairment, including 37 million blind (best-corrected visual acuity less than 3/60 in the bette...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:6
  2. Differences in HLA allele frequencies between the diseased and healthy populations may signify efficient immune responses, a notion that has been successfully tested for infectious diseases or for association ...

    Authors: Joachim Fensterle, Uwe Trefzer, Thomas Berger, Mads Hald Andersen, Selma Ugurel and Jürgen C Becker
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:5
  3. Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of febrile children is a prevalent practice among physicians and parents, despite the lack of evidence on effectiveness or safety. This randomized, dou...

    Authors: Mona M Nabulsi, Hala Tamim, Ziyad Mahfoud, Mohammad Itani, Ramzi Sabra, Fadi Chamseddine and Mohammad Mikati
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:4
  4. As part of the NHS plan it was suggested that all patients receive copies of letters sent to their General Practitioner following outpatient consultations. The former Secretary of State for Health extended thi...

    Authors: Nicola J Roberts and Martyn R Partridge
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:2
  5. The presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and has been associated with metabolic brain changes several years before the onset...

    Authors: Mehul A Trivedi, Taylor W Schmitz, Michele L Ries, Britta M Torgerson, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Sanjay Asthana and Sterling C Johnson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:1
  6. Stopping antipsychotic treatment can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. The reasons for discontinuing treatment during controlled clinical trials were analyzed to explore this phenomenon.

    Authors: Hong Liu-Seifert, David H Adams and Bruce J Kinon
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:21
  7. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent, stereotypic episodes of incapacitating nausea, vomiting and other symptoms, separated by intervals of comparative wellness. This report ...

    Authors: David R Fleisher, Blake Gornowicz, Kathleen Adams, Richard Burch and Edward J Feldman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:20
  8. The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria.

    Authors: William C Reeves, Dieter Wagner, Rosane Nisenbaum, James F Jones, Brian Gurbaxani, Laura Solomon, Dimitris A Papanicolaou, Elizabeth R Unger, Suzanne D Vernon and Christine Heim
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:19
  9. Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of menta...

    Authors: Anne Nordal Broen, Torbjørn Moum, Anne Sejersted Bødtker and Øivind Ekeberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:18
  10. Recent data indicate that chronic use of coxibs leads to an increased occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (t...

    Authors: Luis A García Rodríguez and Antonio González-Pérez
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:17
  11. Self-prescribing among doctors is common, but no longitudinal studies have documented this issue. We studied the self-prescribing behaviour among young Norwegian physicians and the predictors of self-prescribing.

    Authors: Erlend Hem, Guro Stokke, Reidar Tyssen, Nina T Grønvold, Per Vaglum and Øivind Ekeberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:16
  12. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one ...

    Authors: Clive Elliott Adams, John Rathbone, Ben Thornley, Mike Clarke, Jo Borrill, Kristian Wahlbeck and A George Awad
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:15
  13. Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health lite...

    Authors: Anthony F Jorm, Yoshibumi Nakane, Helen Christensen, Kumiko Yoshioka, Kathleen M Griffiths and Yuji Wata
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:12
  14. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids ...

    Authors: Guan-Yeu Diau, Andrea T Hsieh, Eszter A Sarkadi-Nagy, Vasuki Wijendran, Peter W Nathanielsz and J Thomas Brenna
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:11
  15. Favorable clinical outcomes have been observed with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK) in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The mechanisms of this beneficial effect have not been delineated clearly. GIK ...

    Authors: Iwan CC van der Horst, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Arnoud WJ van 't Hof, Stoffer Reiffers, Kor Miedema, Jan CA Hoorntje, Jan-Henk E Dambrink, AT Marcel Gosselink, Maarten WN Nijsten, Harry Suryapranata, Menko-Jan de Boer and Felix Zijlstra
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:9
  16. Some individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) suffer long-lasting symptoms without ever consulting their doctors. Our aim was to study co-morbidity and lifestyle differences among consulte...

    Authors: Ture Ålander, Kurt Svärdsudd, Sven-Erik Johansson and Lars Agréus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:8
  17. There have been concerns that low blood cholesterol concentrations may cause non-vascular mortality and morbidity. Randomisation of large numbers of people to receive a large, and prolonged, reduction in chole...

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:6
  18. Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects simil...

    Authors: Michael Odenwald, Frank Neuner, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert, Claudia Catani, Birke Lingenfelder, Harald Hinkel, Heinz Häfner and Brigitte Rockstroh
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:5
  19. Parental smoking and prone sleep positioning are recognized causal features of Sudden Infant Death. This study quantifies the relationship between prenatal smoking and infant death over the time period of the Bac...

    Authors: Mark E Anderson, Daniel C Johnson and Holly A Batal
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:4
  20. The consistent finding of higher prevalence of hypertension in US blacks compared to whites has led to speculation that African-origin populations are particularly susceptible to this condition. Large surveys ...

    Authors: Richard S Cooper, Katharina Wolf-Maier, Amy Luke, Adebowale Adeyemo, José R Banegas, Terrence Forrester, Simona Giampaoli, Michel Joffres, Mika Kastarinen, Paola Primatesta, Birgitta Stegmayr and Michael Thamm
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:2
  21. The recurrence of cardiac events in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) excluding patients with the Brugada syndrome is unclear since this entity remains present in previous studies.

    Authors: Jean Champagne, Peter Geelen, François Philippon and Pedro Brugada
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:1
  22. There has been concern that the incidence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is increasing. Previous studies have been smaller, restricted to autism (excluding other pervasive develop...

    Authors: Liam Smeeth, Claire Cook, Professor Eric Fombonne, Lisa Heavey, Laura C Rodrigues, Peter G Smith and Andrew J Hall
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:39
  23. Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important cause of acute renal failure. We assess the efficacy of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients undergoing intravascular angiog...

    Authors: Sean M Bagshaw and William A Ghali
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:38
  24. The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...

    Authors: Nicola Marchi, Kerri L Hallene, Kelly M Kight, Luca Cucullo, Gabriel Moddel, William Bingaman, Gabriele Dini, Annamaria Vezzani and Damir Janigro
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:37
  25. Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. m...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma and David W Dunne
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:36
  26. Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing n...

    Authors: Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble and Lisa Zuraw
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:35
  27. The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome o...

    Authors: Maria M Medveczky, Tracy A Sherwood, Thomas W Klein, Herman Friedman and Peter G Medveczky
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:34
  28. We conducted this analysis to determine i) which journals publish high-quality, clinically relevant studies in internal medicine, general/family practice, general practice nursing, and mental health; and ii) t...

    Authors: Kathleen Ann McKibbon, Nancy L Wilczynski and Robert Brian Haynes
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:33
  29. Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish tra...

    Authors: Karin Nygård, Birgitta de Jong, Philippe J Guerin, Yvonne Andersson, Agneta Olsson and Johan Giesecke
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:32
  30. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to pro...

    Authors: Mark J Pletcher, Jeffrey A Tice, Michael Pignone, Charles McCulloch, Tracy Q Callister and Warren S Browner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:31
  31. Pendred syndrome, a common autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and goiter, is caused by mutations of SLC26A4, which codes for pendrin. We investigated the relationship between pen...

    Authors: Philine Wangemann, Erin M Itza, Beatrice Albrecht, Tao Wu, Sairam V Jabba, Rajanikanth J Maganti, Jun Ho Lee, Lorraine A Everett, Susan M Wall, Ines E Royaux, Eric D Green and Daniel C Marcus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:30
  32. The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning s...

    Authors: IC McManus, A Keeling and E Paice
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:29
  33. While the basic ethical issues regarding consent may be universal to all countries, the consent procedures required by international review boards which include detailed scientific and legal information, may n...

    Authors: J Sastry, H Pisal, S Sutar, N Kapadia-Kundu, A Joshi, N Suryavanshi, KE Bharucha, A Shrotri, MA Phadke, RC Bollinger and AV Shankar
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:28
  34. Within the UK there is considerable variation in the perinatal mortality rate. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with stillbirths and early neonatal deaths (ENND) and the suitabi...

    Authors: Nigel C Smeeton, Roberto J Rona, Pamela Dobson, Ruth Cochrane and Charles Wolfe
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:27
  35. Suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with higher mortality among infants and young children in the developing world. We describe patterns in 'exclusive breastfeeding' and 'any breastfeeding' rates and quanti...

    Authors: Jeremy A Lauer, Ana Pilar Betrán, Cesar G Victora, Mercedes de Onís and Aluísio JD Barros
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:26
  36. Residents of the Republic of Serbia faced civil war and a NATO-led bombing campaign in 1999. We sought to assess the burden of metal health dysfunction among emergency department (ED) patients presenting for c...

    Authors: Brett D Nelson, William G Fernandez, Sandro Galea, Sarah Sisco, Kerry Dierberg, Gordana Subaric Gorgieva, Arijit K Nandi, Jennifer Ahern, Mihajlo Mitrović, Michael VanRooyen and David Vlahov
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:22
  37. A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outc...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, Caroline Dufresne, Mark A Barone and Karine St-Hilaire
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:21
  38. Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American wom...

    Authors: Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, Bonnie M Duran and Juliann M Montgomery
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:20
  39. ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo. Since overactivit...

    Authors: Andrew B Goulter, Martin J Goddard, Jennifer C Allen and Kenneth L Clark
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:19
  40. To empirically evaluate bias in estimation of accuracy associated with delay in verification of diagnosis among studies evaluating tests for predicting endometrial hyperplasia.

    Authors: T Justin Clark, Gerben ter Riet, Aravinthan Coomarasamy and Khalid S Khan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:18