Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:152
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Guidance for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder based upon expert consensus
Individuals with co-occurring hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have complex presentations that may complicate diagnosis and treatment. There are estab...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:146
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:151
Circulating mRNAs are differentially expressed in pregnancies with severe placental insufficiency and at high risk of stillbirth
Fetuses affected by placental insufficiency do not receive adequate nutrients and oxygenation, become growth restricted and acidemic, and can demise. Preterm fetal growth restriction is a severe form of placen...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:145
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:150
Development and validation of a multivariable prediction model for infection-related complications in patients with common infections in UK primary care and the extent of risk-based prescribing of antibiotics
Antimicrobial resistance is driven by the overuse of antibiotics. This study aimed to develop and validate clinical prediction models for the risk of infection-related hospital admission with upper respiratory...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:118
Effects of service changes affecting distance/time to access urgent and emergency care facilities on patient outcomes: a systematic review
Reconfiguration of urgent and emergency care services often increases travel time/distance for patients to reach an appropriate facility. Evidence of the effects of reconfiguration is important for local commu...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:117
Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) risk score is the only currently available midlife risk score for dementia. We compared CAIDE to Framingham cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS)...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:107
Is health research undertaken where the burden of disease is greatest? Observational study of geographical inequalities in recruitment to research in England 2013–2018
Research is fundamental to high-quality care, but concerns have been raised about whether health research is conducted in the populations most affected by high disease prevalence. Geographical distribution of ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:133
The increase in the number of predatory journals puts scholarly communication at risk. In order to guard against publication in predatory journals, authors may use checklists to help detect predatory journals....
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:104
Spatial heterogeneity and socioeconomic determinants of opioid prescribing in England between 2015 and 2018
Opioid overdoses have had a serious impact on the public health systems and socioeconomic welfare of several countries. Within this broader context, we focus our study on primary care opioid prescribing in Eng...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:127
Exploring UK medical school differences: the MedDifs study of selection, teaching, student and F1 perceptions, postgraduate outcomes and fitness to practise
Medical schools differ, particularly in their teaching, but it is unclear whether such differences matter, although influential claims are often made. The Medical School Differences (MedDifs) study brings togethe...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:136
The Analysis of Teaching of Medical Schools (AToMS) survey: an analysis of 47,258 timetabled teaching events in 25 UK medical schools relating to timing, duration, teaching formats, teaching content, and problem-based learning
What subjects UK medical schools teach, what ways they teach subjects, and how much they teach those subjects is unclear. Whether teaching differences matter is a separate, important question. This study provides...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:126
Does fine particulate matter (PM2.5) affect the benefits of habitual physical activity on lung function in adults: a longitudinal cohort study
Physical activity (PA) increases a person’s inhalation of air pollutants due to greater ventilation, possibly leading to larger adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate the combined effects of lo...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:134
Early-life malnutrition may have long-lasting effects on microbe-host interactions that affect health and disease susceptibility later in life. Diet quality and quantity in conjunction with toxin and pathogen ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:135
Actigraphy has received increasing attention in classifying rest-activity cycles. However, in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), actigraphy data may be considerably confounded by passive movements...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:106
A Target Product Profile (TPP) outlines the necessary characteristics of an innovative product to address an unmet clinical need. TPPs could be used to better guide manufacturers in the development of ‘fit for...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:119
Predicting the risk of childhood overweight and obesity at 4–5 years using population-level pregnancy and early-life healthcare data
Nearly a third of children in the UK are overweight, with the prevalence in the most deprived areas more than twice that in the least deprived. The aim was to develop a risk identification model for childhood ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:105
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:125
Engaging patients in de-implementation interventions to reduce low-value clinical care: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Many decisions regarding health resource utilization flow through the patient-clinician interaction. Thus, it represents a place where de-implementation interventions may have considerable effect on reducing t...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:116
To mitigate and slow the spread of COVID-19, many countries have adopted unprecedented physical distancing policies, including the UK. We evaluate whether these measures might be sufficient to control the epid...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:124
Compared to adults, there are relatively few studies on COVID-19 infection in children, and even less focusing on the unique features of COVID-19 in children in terms of laboratory findings, locations of compu...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:123
Association between changes in harm perceptions and e-cigarette use among current tobacco smokers in England: a time series analysis
There is a decreasing trend in the proportion of individuals who perceive e-cigarettes to be less harmful than conventional cigarettes across the UK, Europe and the US. It is important to assess whether this m...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:98
Beta-blocker efficacy across different cardiovascular indications: an umbrella review and meta-analytic assessment
Beta-blockers are widely used for many cardiovascular conditions; however, their efficacy in contemporary clinical practice remains uncertain.
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:103
Healthcare represents a paradox. While change is everywhere, performance has flatlined: 60% of care on average is in line with evidence- or consensus-based guidelines, 30% is some form of waste or of low value...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:102
Septoplasty versus non-surgical management for nasal obstruction in adults with a deviated septum: economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial
For years, the benefits of septoplasty have been questioned. Due to the scarce and inconclusive literature, several National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups in England decided to add septal ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:101
Secondary care specialist visits made by children and young people prescribed antidepressants in primary care: a descriptive study using the QResearch database
Antidepressants may be used to manage a number of conditions in children and young people including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. UK guidelines for the treatment of depression in chil...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:93
A systematic review of changing malaria disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000: comparing model predictions and empirical observations
The most widely used measures of declining burden of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa are predictions from geospatial models. These models apply spatiotemporal autocorrelations and covariates to parasite prev...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:94
Most of the world’s sickle cell disease (SCD) burden is in Africa, where it is a major contributor to child morbidity and mortality. Despite the low cost of many preventive SCD interventions, insufficient reso...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:92
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:115
The 2018–2019 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the largest ever recorded in the DRC. It has been declared a Public Health Em...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:113
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:108
The associations of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened and naturally sweet juices with all-cause mortality in 198,285 UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study
Recent efforts to address the obesity epidemic have focused on sugar consumption, especially sugar-sweetened beverages. However, sugar takes many forms, is only one contributor to overall energy consumption an...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:97
Reducing expectations for antibiotics in primary care: a randomised experiment to test the response to fear-based messages about antimicrobial resistance
To reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, public health campaigns often provide fear-based information about antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Meta-analyses have found that fear-based campaigns in other contexts a...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:110
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:112
Transmissibility and pathogenicity of the emerging meningococcal serogroup W sequence type-11 complex South American strain: a mathematical modeling study
The recent emergence of strains belonging to the meningococcal serogroup W (MenW) sequence type-11 clonal complex and descending from the South American sub-lineage (MenW:cc11/SA) has caused significant shifts...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:109
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:111
Stress testing journals: a quasi-experimental study of rejection rates of a previously published paper
When a journal receives a duplicate publication, the ability to identify the submitted work as previously published, and reject it, is an assay to publication ethics best practices. The aim of this study was t...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:88
Are immune-related adverse events associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis
A number of studies have reported an association between the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and clinical efficacy in patients undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs),...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:87
Clinical utility and cost modelling of the phi test to triage referrals into image-based diagnostic services for suspected prostate cancer: the PRIM (Phi to RefIne Mri) study
The clinical pathway to detect and diagnose prostate cancer has been revolutionised by the use of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI pre-biopsy). mpMRI however remains a resource-intensive test and is highly operator ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:95
Heterogeneity in the uptake, attendance, and outcomes in a clinical trial of a total diet replacement weight loss programme
Trials have shown total diet replacement (TDR) programmes are safe and effective for weight loss in primary care. However, it is not clear whether participant characteristics affect uptake, attendance, or effe...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:86
Prediction of sepsis mortality using metabolite biomarkers in the blood: a meta-analysis of death-related pathways and prospective validation
Sepsis is a leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs), but outcomes of individual patients are difficult to predict. The recently developed clinical metabolomics has been recognized as a promising ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:83
Cost-effectiveness of introducing national seasonal influenza vaccination for adults aged 60 years and above in mainland China: a modelling analysis
China has an aging population with an increasing number of adults aged ≥ 60 years. Influenza causes a heavy disease burden in older adults, but can be alleviated by vaccination. We assessed the cost-effectiven...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:90
Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research envisages a relationship built throughout the lifespan of a research project between academics, clinicians and PPI colleagues in order to inform, plan, execute ...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:79
Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study
Multimorbidity is associated with mortality and service use, with specific types of multimorbidity having differential effects. Additionally, multimorbidity is often negatively associated with participation in...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:78
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:100
Clinical and cost-effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate therapy for older patients with chronic kidney disease and low-grade acidosis (BiCARB): a pragmatic randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Chronic kidney disease with metabolic acidosis is common in older people, but the effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate therapy in this group is unclear. We tested whether oral sodium bicarbonate provides n...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:91
Bridging the gap between complexity science and clinical practice by formalizing idiographic theories: a computational model of functional analysis
The past decades of research have seen an increase in statistical tools to explore the complex dynamics of mental health from patient data, yet the application of these tools in clinical practice remains uncom...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:99
Long-term evaluation of the rise in legal age-of-sale of cigarettes from 16 to 18 in England: a trend analysis
To assess the long-term impact of the increase in age-of-sale of cigarettes from 16 to 18 in England in October 2007.
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:85
Optimising strategies to address mental ill-health in doctors and medical students: ‘Care Under Pressure’ realist review and implementation guidance
Mental ill-health in health professionals, including doctors, is a global and growing concern. The existing literature on interventions that offer support, advice and/or treatment to sick doctors has not yet b...
Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:76
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