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  1. Many risk factors for fractures have been documented, including low bone-mineral density (BMD) and a history of fractures. However, little is known about the short-term absolute risk (AR) of fractures and the ...

    Authors: Antonia CM van Geel, Piet P Geusens, Ivo F Nagtzaam, Cyril MJR Schreurs, Danny JM van der Voort, Paula ELM Rinkens, Arnold DM Kester and Geert-Jan Dinant
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:24
  2. We highlight a chronic inflammatory disease we call 'hyper-IgG4 disease', which has many synonyms depending on the organ involved, the country of origin and the year of the report. It is characterized histolog...

    Authors: Guy H Neild, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Catherine Wall and John O Connolly
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:23
  3. Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002), however th...

    Authors: Avi Bleich, Marc Gelkopf, Yuval Melamed and Zahava Solomon
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:21
  4. During the past few decades, research has reported gender bias in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. To prevent such bias, a gender perspective in medicine has been requested, but difficulties an...

    Authors: Gunilla Risberg, Katarina Hamberg and Eva E Johansson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:20
  5. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general popul...

    Authors: Gunnel Hensing, Lena Andersson and Sören Brage
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:19
  6. No efficacy studies of influenza vaccination given to GPs have yet been published. Therefore, our purpose was to assess the effect of an inactivated influenza vaccine given to GPs on the rate of clinical respi...

    Authors: Michiels Barbara, Philips Hilde, Coenen Samuel, Yane Fernande, Steinhauser Toon, Stuyck Sofie, Denekens Joke and Van Royen Paul
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:17
  7. Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) increases breast-cancer risk. The influence of HRT on the biology of the primary tumor, however, is not well understood.

    Authors: Per Hall, Alexander Ploner, Judith Bjöhle, Fei Huang, Chin-Yo Lin, Edison T Liu, Lance D Miller, Hans Nordgren, Yudi Pawitan, Peter Shaw, Lambert Skoog, Johanna Smeds, Sara Wedrén, John Öhd and Jonas Bergh
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:16
  8. While delirium is common among older adults in acute care hospitals, its prevalence in other settings has been less well studied. We examined delirium prevalence and outcomes in a large cohort of older Canadia...

    Authors: Melissa K Andrew, Susan H Freter and Kenneth Rockwood
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:15
  9. The aim of the current study was to assess the antidepressant efficacy and safety of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) extract WS® 5570 at doses of 600 mg/day in a single dose and 1200 mg/day in two doses.

    Authors: Siegfried Kasper, Ion-George Anghelescu, Armin Szegedi, Angelika Dienel and Meinhard Kieser
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:14
  10. BioMed Central (BMC) requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Wager, Emma C Parkin and Pritpal S Tamber
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:13
  11. The beneficial effect of aspirin after coronary surgery is established; however, a recent study reported the inability of low doses (100 mg) to inhibit postoperative platelet function. We conducted a double-bl...

    Authors: Eric Lim, Jacqueline Cornelissen, Tom Routledge, Ayyaz Ali, Stephen Kirtland, Linda Sharples, Kate Sheridan, Sarah Bellm, Helen Munday and Stephen Large
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:12
  12. Procedural pain relief is sub-optimal in infants, especially small and vulnerable ones. Tetracaine gel 4% (Ametop®, Smith-Nephew) provides pain relief in children and larger infants, but its efficacy in smaller i...

    Authors: Brigitte Lemyre, Rebecca Sherlock, Debora Hogan, Isabelle Gaboury, Colline Blanchard and David Moher
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:11
  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as ME (CFS/ME), is a condition characterised primarily by severe, disabling fatigue, of unknown origin, which has a poor prognosis and serious personal and economic consequ...

    Authors: AJ Wearden, L Riste, C Dowrick, C Chew-Graham, RP Bentall, RK Morriss, S Peters, G Dunn, G Richardson, K Lovell and P Powell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:9
  14. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is presumed to be endemic throughout Asia, yet only a few cases have been reported in tropical Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. To estimate the true d...

    Authors: Komang Kari, Wei Liu, Kompiang Gautama, Mammen P Mammen Jr, John D Clemens, Ananda Nisalak, Ketut Subrata, Hyei Kyung Kim and Zhi-Yi Xu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:8
  15. A recent estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that 161 million persons worldwide have visual impairment, including 37 million blind (best-corrected visual acuity less than 3/60 in the bette...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:6
  16. Differences in HLA allele frequencies between the diseased and healthy populations may signify efficient immune responses, a notion that has been successfully tested for infectious diseases or for association ...

    Authors: Joachim Fensterle, Uwe Trefzer, Thomas Berger, Mads Hald Andersen, Selma Ugurel and Jürgen C Becker
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:5
  17. Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of febrile children is a prevalent practice among physicians and parents, despite the lack of evidence on effectiveness or safety. This randomized, dou...

    Authors: Mona M Nabulsi, Hala Tamim, Ziyad Mahfoud, Mohammad Itani, Ramzi Sabra, Fadi Chamseddine and Mohammad Mikati
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:4
  18. As part of the NHS plan it was suggested that all patients receive copies of letters sent to their General Practitioner following outpatient consultations. The former Secretary of State for Health extended thi...

    Authors: Nicola J Roberts and Martyn R Partridge
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:2
  19. The presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and has been associated with metabolic brain changes several years before the onset...

    Authors: Mehul A Trivedi, Taylor W Schmitz, Michele L Ries, Britta M Torgerson, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Sanjay Asthana and Sterling C Johnson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2006 4:1
  20. Stopping antipsychotic treatment can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. The reasons for discontinuing treatment during controlled clinical trials were analyzed to explore this phenomenon.

    Authors: Hong Liu-Seifert, David H Adams and Bruce J Kinon
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:21
  21. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent, stereotypic episodes of incapacitating nausea, vomiting and other symptoms, separated by intervals of comparative wellness. This report ...

    Authors: David R Fleisher, Blake Gornowicz, Kathleen Adams, Richard Burch and Edward J Feldman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:20
  22. The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria.

    Authors: William C Reeves, Dieter Wagner, Rosane Nisenbaum, James F Jones, Brian Gurbaxani, Laura Solomon, Dimitris A Papanicolaou, Elizabeth R Unger, Suzanne D Vernon and Christine Heim
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:19
  23. Miscarriage and induced abortion are life events that can potentially cause mental distress. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the patterns of normalization of menta...

    Authors: Anne Nordal Broen, Torbjørn Moum, Anne Sejersted Bødtker and Øivind Ekeberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:18
  24. Recent data indicate that chronic use of coxibs leads to an increased occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (t...

    Authors: Luis A García Rodríguez and Antonio González-Pérez
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:17
  25. Self-prescribing among doctors is common, but no longitudinal studies have documented this issue. We studied the self-prescribing behaviour among young Norwegian physicians and the predictors of self-prescribing.

    Authors: Erlend Hem, Guro Stokke, Reidar Tyssen, Nina T Grønvold, Per Vaglum and Øivind Ekeberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:16
  26. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) remains one of the most common drugs used for people with schizophrenia worldwide, and a benchmark against which other treatments can be evaluated. Quantitative reviews are rare; this one ...

    Authors: Clive Elliott Adams, John Rathbone, Ben Thornley, Mike Clarke, Jo Borrill, Kristian Wahlbeck and A George Awad
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:15
  27. Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health lite...

    Authors: Anthony F Jorm, Yoshibumi Nakane, Helen Christensen, Kumiko Yoshioka, Kathleen M Griffiths and Yuji Wata
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:12
  28. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids ...

    Authors: Guan-Yeu Diau, Andrea T Hsieh, Eszter A Sarkadi-Nagy, Vasuki Wijendran, Peter W Nathanielsz and J Thomas Brenna
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:11
  29. Favorable clinical outcomes have been observed with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK) in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The mechanisms of this beneficial effect have not been delineated clearly. GIK ...

    Authors: Iwan CC van der Horst, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Arnoud WJ van 't Hof, Stoffer Reiffers, Kor Miedema, Jan CA Hoorntje, Jan-Henk E Dambrink, AT Marcel Gosselink, Maarten WN Nijsten, Harry Suryapranata, Menko-Jan de Boer and Felix Zijlstra
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:9
  30. Some individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) suffer long-lasting symptoms without ever consulting their doctors. Our aim was to study co-morbidity and lifestyle differences among consulte...

    Authors: Ture Ålander, Kurt Svärdsudd, Sven-Erik Johansson and Lars Agréus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:8
  31. There have been concerns that low blood cholesterol concentrations may cause non-vascular mortality and morbidity. Randomisation of large numbers of people to receive a large, and prolonged, reduction in chole...

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:6
  32. Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects simil...

    Authors: Michael Odenwald, Frank Neuner, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert, Claudia Catani, Birke Lingenfelder, Harald Hinkel, Heinz Häfner and Brigitte Rockstroh
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:5
  33. Parental smoking and prone sleep positioning are recognized causal features of Sudden Infant Death. This study quantifies the relationship between prenatal smoking and infant death over the time period of the Bac...

    Authors: Mark E Anderson, Daniel C Johnson and Holly A Batal
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:4
  34. The consistent finding of higher prevalence of hypertension in US blacks compared to whites has led to speculation that African-origin populations are particularly susceptible to this condition. Large surveys ...

    Authors: Richard S Cooper, Katharina Wolf-Maier, Amy Luke, Adebowale Adeyemo, José R Banegas, Terrence Forrester, Simona Giampaoli, Michel Joffres, Mika Kastarinen, Paola Primatesta, Birgitta Stegmayr and Michael Thamm
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:2
  35. The recurrence of cardiac events in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) excluding patients with the Brugada syndrome is unclear since this entity remains present in previous studies.

    Authors: Jean Champagne, Peter Geelen, François Philippon and Pedro Brugada
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2005 3:1
  36. There has been concern that the incidence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is increasing. Previous studies have been smaller, restricted to autism (excluding other pervasive develop...

    Authors: Liam Smeeth, Claire Cook, Professor Eric Fombonne, Lisa Heavey, Laura C Rodrigues, Peter G Smith and Andrew J Hall
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:39
  37. Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important cause of acute renal failure. We assess the efficacy of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients undergoing intravascular angiog...

    Authors: Sean M Bagshaw and William A Ghali
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:38
  38. The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...

    Authors: Nicola Marchi, Kerri L Hallene, Kelly M Kight, Luca Cucullo, Gabriel Moddel, William Bingaman, Gabriele Dini, Annamaria Vezzani and Damir Janigro
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:37
  39. Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. m...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma and David W Dunne
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:36