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Table 5 Prevalence and incidence density of chronic comorbid diseases: before, at time of, and after diabetes diagnosis (DD)1

From: Prevalence and incidence density rates of chronic comorbidity in type 2 diabetes patients: an exploratory cohort study

Chronic disease2 Before diabetes Date of DD After diabetes
  ID,3 year before DD Prevalence4 at DD, % (95% CI) ID3,first year after DD ID3,first 5 years after DD ID3, first 10 years after DD
Hypertension 75.2 (49.9 to 100.5) 38.4 (34.9 to 42.0) 56.8 (33.6 to 80.0) 42.6 (32.1 to 53.0) 40.0 (31.5 to 48.5)
Varicose veins; venous insufficiency 16.5 (5.7 to 27.3) 21.4 (18.5 to 24.6) 13.3 (3.5 to 23.2) 12.5 (7.6 to 17.4) 10.8 (7.0 to 14.6)
Angina pectoris 13.1 (4.0 to 22.2) 12.3 (10.1 to 14.9) 13.6 (4.2 to 22.9) 14.4 (9.5 to 19.3) 15.1 (10.9 to 19.3)
Atrial fibrillation/flutter 18.9 (8.2 to 29.7) 8.7 (6.8 to 10.9) 8.1 (1.0 to 15.2) 11.2 (7.0 to 15.5) 12.3 (8.6 to 16.0)
Myocardial infarction 17.2 (7.0 to 27.3) 8.5 (6.7 to 10.8) 4.8 (0.0 to 10.3) 7.8 (4.3 to 11.3) 9.6 (6.4 to 12.8)
(Congestive) heart failure 15.6 (5.9 to 25.3) 8.0 (6.2 to 10.2) 16.1 (6.1 to 26.1) 12.7 (8.3 to 17.2) 16.2 (12.0 to 20.4)
CVA 15.1 (5.7 to 24.5) 4.9 (3.5 to 6.7) 12.5 (3.8 to 21.1) 11.2 (7.1 to 15.4) 14.7 (10.7 to 18.6)
Intermittent claudication 9.0 (1.8 to 16.2) 4.3 (3.0 to 6.0) 4.6 (0.0 to 9.9) 4.3 (1.8 to 6.9) 3.5 (1.6 to 5.4)
TIA 8.9 (1.8 to 16.0) 2.9 (1.9 to 4.4) 4.6 (0.0 to 9.8) 5.5 (2.6 to 8.3) 5.9 (3.4 to 8.4)
Heart valve disease 6.0 (0.1 to 11.8) 2.9 (1.9 to 4.4) 7.6 (0.9 to 14.3) 5.8 (2.9 to 8.7) 5.6 (3.2 to 8.0)
Osteoarthritis, knee 14.7 (5.1 to 24.3) 12.0 (9.8 to 14.6) 6.7 (0.1 to 13.3) 13.9 (9.1 to 18.8) 13.3 (9.4 to 17.2)
Osteoarthritis, hip 7.9 (1.0 to 14.9) 8.7 (6.8 to 10.9) 1.6 (0.0 to 4.8) 3.7 (1.3 to 6.1) 5.4 (3.0 to 7.8)
Osteoarthritis, other 7.9 (1.0 to 14.8) 8.4 (6.5 to 10.6) 9.7 (1.9 to 17.5) 8.4 (4.7 to 12.0) 8.1 (5.1 to 11.1)
Osteoarthritis, cervical spine 6.2 (0.1 to 12.3) 7.1 (5.4 to 9.2) 4.8 (0.0 to 10.2) 2.4 (0.5 to 4.4) 2.5 (0.9 to 4.1)
Lumbar osteoarthritis 4.7 (0.0 to 9.9) 7.0 (5.3 to 9.1) 8.0 (1.0 to 14.9) 5.3 (2.4 to 8.2) 4.5 (2.3 to 6.8)
Rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylarthritis 0.0 1.4 (0.7 to 2.5) 0.0 0.4 (0.0 to 1.1) 1.0 (0.0 to 2.1)
(Chronic) functional somatic symptoms 5.4 (0.0 to 11.5) 19.2 (16.4 to 22.2) 3.7 (0.0 to 8.8) 3.8 (1.2 to 6.4) 3.5 (1.4 to 5.6)
Depression 3.0 (0.0 to 7.1) 2.5 (1.5 to 3.9) 0.0 1.2 (0.0 to 2.5) 1.3 (0.2 to 2.5)
Alzheimer's disease 7.3 (0.9 to 13.8) 1.5 (0.8 to 2.7) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.2) 5.0 (2.3 to 7.7) 7.1 (4.4 to 9.8)
Mental retardation 0.0 1.5 (0.8 to 2.7) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Deafness 16.6 (6.3 to 26.9) 13.6 (11.2 to 16.3) 13.7 (4.2 to 23.2) 15.5 (10.3 to 20.6) 13.7 (9.7 to 17.7)
Cataract 17.1 (7.0 to 27.2) 7.8 (6.0 to 10.0) 42.8 (26.3 to 59.2) 34.0 (26.4 to 41.6) 33.6 (27.2 to 40.0)
Glaucoma 3.0 (0.0 to 7.1) 2.9 (1.9 to 4.4) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.3) 3.1 (1.0 to 5.3) 2.4 (0.8 to 4.0)
Urinary incontinence5 13.1 (0.3 to 26.0) 13.2 (10.0 to 17.0) 16.6 (2.1 to 31.2) 17.3 (9.7 to 24.8) 14.7 (8.9 to 20.4)
Prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy6 19.3 (3.9 to 34.8) 9.7 (6.9 to 13.1) 3.4 (0.0 to 10.0) 8.7 (3.3 to 14.1) 10.4 (5.5 to 15.4)
Uterine fibroid5 0.0 2.2 (1.0 to 4.1) 0.0 0.7 (0.0 to 2.2) 0.5 (0.0 to 1.7)
Urinary incontinence6 9.0 (0.0 to 19.1) 2.0 (0.9 to 3.9) 9.4 (0.0 to 19.9) 5.7 (1.5 to 9.9) 5.1 (1.8 to 8.4)
COPD 3.3 (0.0 to 7.8) 11.2 (9.0 to 13.7) 1.7 (0.0 to 4.9) 3.7 (1.3 to 6.2) 3.4 (1.5 to 5.3)
Asthma 3.0 (0.0 to 7.1) 3.1 (2.0 to 4.6) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.3) 1.2 (0.0 to 2.5) 0.8 (0.0 to 1.7)
Psoriasis 4.6 (0.0 to 9.8) 5.6 (4.1 to 7.5) 1.6 (0.0 to 4.6) 2.0 (0.2 to 3.7) 1.6 (0.0 to 1.7)
Diaphragmatic hernia 1.5 (0.0 to 4.4) 2.5 (1.5 to 3.9) 0.0 0.0 0.3 (0.0 to 0.8)
Colonic diverticula; diverticulitis 1.5 (0.0 to 4.4) 2.0 (1.1 to 3.2) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.2) 2.3 (0.5 to 4.2) 2.1 (0.6 to 3.6)
Gout 4.5 (0.0 to 9.7) 4.1 (2.8 to 5.7) 0.0 3.5 (1.2 to 5.9) 3.0 (1.2 to 4.7)
Hypothyroidism 4.4 (0.0 to 9.5) 2.5 (1.5 to 3.9) 1.5 (0.0 to 4.5) 1.6 (0.0 to 3.1) 1.6 (0.3 to 2.9)
Hyperthyroidism 0.0 2.2 (1.3 to 3.5) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.2) 1.2 (0.0 to 2.5) 0.8 (0.0 to 1.7)
Breast cancer5 2.9 (0.0 to 8.7) 2.8 (1.4 to 4.9) 8.9 (0.0 to 18.9) 7.5 (2.8 to 12.1) 7.1 (3.4 to 10.9)
Prostate cancer6 0.0 1.7 (0.7 to 3.5) 6.2 (0.0 to 14.8) 2.4 (0.0 to 5.1) 3.9 (1.0 to 6.8)
Endometrial cancer5 0.0 1.4 (0.5 to 3.0) 2.9 (0.0 to 8.6) 0.7 (0.0 to 2.2) 0.5 (0.0 to 1.5)
Skin cancer 2.9 (0.0 to 7.0) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.5) 0.0 1.1 (0.0 to 2.4) 1.8 (0.5 to 3.2)
Colon cancer 0.0 0.6 (0.2 to 1.3) 0.0 1.5 (0.0 to 3.0) 2.1 (0.6 to 3.5)
Lung/bronchial cancer 1.5 (0.0 to 4.3) 0.3 (0.0 to 0.9) 3.0 (0.0 to 7.1) 1.5 (0.0 to 3.0) 1.8 (0.5 to 3.1)
Migraine 0.0 2.0 (1.1 to 3.2) 1.5 (0.0 to 4.5) 0.8 (0.0 to 1.8) 1.1 (0.0 to 2.1)
  1. Abbreviations: DD, date of diabetes diagnosis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ID, incidence density; TIA, transient ischemic attack.
  2. 1Confidence intervals for proportions were calculated with the Mid-P exact test. Confidence intervals for person time were calculated as a normal approximation to the Poisson interval. Values smaller than 0.0 have been truncated to 0.0.
  3. 2Diseases sorted by cluster, in decreasing prevalence at the date of DD diabetes date, and within the particular cluster by decreasing prevalence at date of DD.
  4. 3Incidence density in a specified time period was calculated as the number of new cases of comorbidity, divided by the number of person-years at risk for a diagnosis of the particular comorbidity. Expressed as number of new cases per 1,000 patient-years at risk (95% CI).
  5. 4Prevalence at diabetes date was calculated as the number of patients with the comorbidity of interest at the date of DD, divided by the total number of patients (n = 714).
  6. 5Prevalence and incidence displayed only for women in the study population.
  7. 6Prevalence and incidence displayed only for men in the study population.