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  1. While vaccination programs against the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally ongoing, disparate strategies for the deployment of spike antigen show varying effectiveness.

    Authors: Michael Müller, Johann Volzke, Behnam Subin, Silke Müller, Martina Sombetzki, Emil C. Reisinger and Brigitte Müller-Hilke

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:29

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased propensity for arrhythmias. In this context, ventricular repolarization alterations have been shown to predispose to fatal arrhythmias and sudden cardi...

    Authors: José Alberto Navarro-García, Rafael Salguero-Bodes, Laura González-Lafuente, Laura Martín-Nunes, Elena Rodríguez-Sánchez, Teresa Bada-Bosch, Eduardo Hernández, Evangelina Mérida-Herrero, Manuel Praga, Jorge Solís, Fernando Arribas, Héctor Bueno, Makoto Kuro-O, María Fernández-Velasco, Luis Miguel Ruilope, Carmen Delgado…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:14

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Recaticimab (SHR-1209, a humanized monoclonal antibody against PCSK9) showed robust LDL-C reduction in healthy volunteers. This study aimed to further assess the efficacy and safety of recaticimab in patients ...

    Authors: Mingtong Xu, Xiaoxue Zhu, Junyan Wu, Yuling Zhang, Dong Zhao, Xuhong Wang, Yanhua Ding, Yu Cao, Chengqian Li, Wei Hu, Jianlong Sheng, Zhu Luo, Zeqi Zheng, Jinfang Hu, Jianying Liu, Xiaoyang Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:13

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Although alectinib had demonstrated promising intrac...

    Authors: Zihua Zou, Puyuan Xing, Xuezhi Hao, Yan Wang, Xia Song, Li Shan, Cuiying Zhang, Ziling Liu, Kewei Ma, Guilan Dong and Junling Li

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:12

    Content type: Research article

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  5. There is considerable variability in disease progression for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including the age of disease onset, site of disease onset, and survival time. There is growing evi...

    Authors: Frances Theunissen, Loren L. Flynn, Ryan S. Anderton and P. Anthony Akkari

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:11

    Content type: Opinion

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  6. Nudging is increasingly used to promote healthy food choices in supermarkets. Ordering groceries online is gaining in popularity and nudging seems efficacious there as well, but is never comprehensively tested...

    Authors: Josine M. Stuber, Jeroen Lakerveld, Loes W. Kievitsbosch, Joreintje D. Mackenbach and Joline W. J. Beulens

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:10

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious respiratory virus which is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is increasingly clear that re...

    Authors: Feargal J. Ryan, Christopher M. Hope, Makutiro G. Masavuli, Miriam A. Lynn, Zelalem A. Mekonnen, Arthur Eng Lip Yeow, Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Zahraa Al-Delfi, Jason Gummow, Catherine Ferguson, Stephanie O’Connor, Benjamin A. J. Reddi, Pravin Hissaria, David Shaw, Chuan Kok-Lim, Jonathan M. Gleadle…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:26

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Mother-to-baby transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the main cause of early-onset infection. We evaluated whether, in women with clinical risk factors for early neonatal infection, the use of point-of-c...

    Authors: Jane P. Daniels, Emily Dixon, Alicia Gill, Jon Bishop, Mark Wilks, Michael Millar, Jim Gray, Tracy E. Roberts, Jane Plumb, Jonathan J. Deeks, Karla Hemming, Khalid S. Khan and Shakila Thangaratinam

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:9

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Aberrant DNA methylation may offer opportunities in revolutionizing cancer screening and diagnosis. We sought to identify a non-invasive DNA methylation-based screening approach using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for...

    Authors: Biyuan Luo, Fang Ma, Hao Liu, Jixiong Hu, Le Rao, Chun Liu, Yongfang Jiang, Shuyu Kuangzeng, Xuan Lin, Chenyang Wang, Yiyu Lei, Zhongzhou Si, Guangshun Chen, Ning Zhou, Chengbai Liang, Fangqing Jiang…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:8

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Relationships between viral load, severity of illness, and transmissibility of virus are fundamental to understanding pathogenesis and devising better therapeutic and prevention strategies for COVID-19. Here w...

    Authors: Joseph D. Challenger, Cher Y. Foo, Yue Wu, Ada W. C. Yan, Mahdi Moradi Marjaneh, Felicity Liew, Ryan S. Thwaites, Lucy C. Okell and Aubrey J. Cunnington

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:25

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The overall consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) has previously been associated with type 2 diabetes. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity of this food category, in terms of their nutritional com...

    Authors: Ming-Jie Duan, Petra C. Vinke, Gerjan Navis, Eva Corpeleijn and Louise H. Dekker

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:7

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The relation of the variety and quantity of different sources of dietary proteins intake and diabetes remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the associations between the variety and quantity of proteins in...

    Authors: Chun Zhou, Chengzhang Liu, Zhuxian Zhang, Mengyi Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Huan Li, Panpan He, Qinqin Li and Xianhui Qin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:6

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Health economic evaluations are comparative analyses of alternative courses of action in terms of their costs and consequences. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CH...

    Authors: Don Husereau, Michael Drummond, Federico Augustovski, Esther de Bekker-Grob, Andrew H. Briggs, Chris Carswell, Lisa Caulley, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Dan Greenberg, Elizabeth Loder, Josephine Mauskopf, C. Daniel Mullins, Stavros Petrou, Raoh-Fang Pwu and Sophie Staniszewska

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:23

    Content type: Guideline

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  14. Genetic and lifestyle factors have considerable effects on obesity and related diseases, yet their effects in a clinical cohort are unknown. This study in a patient biobank examined associations of a BMI polyg...

    Authors: Hassan S. Dashti, Nicole Miranda, Brian E. Cade, Tianyi Huang, Susan Redline, Elizabeth W. Karlson and Richa Saxena

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The associations of maternal cigarette smoking with congenital anomalies in offspring have been inconsistent. This study aimed to clarify the associations of the timing and intensity of maternal cigarette smok...

    Authors: Lili Yang, Huan Wang, Liu Yang, Min Zhao, Yajun Guo, Pascal Bovet and Bo Xi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:4

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to exa...

    Authors: Emmanouil Bouras, Ville Karhunen, Dipender Gill, Jian Huang, Philip C. Haycock, Marc J. Gunter, Mattias Johansson, Paul Brennan, Tim Key, Sarah J. Lewis, Richard M. Martin, Neil Murphy, Elizabeth A. Platz, Ruth Travis, James Yarmolinsky, Verena Zuber…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:3

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Clinical practice guidelines recommend sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) to mitigate adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), including patients wit...

    Authors: Csaba Kovesdy, Niklas Schmedt, Kerstin Folkerts, Kevin Bowrin, Hanaya Raad, Michael Batech and Linda Fried

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:2

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Previous studies have shown an association between experience of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) and depression. Whether this is a causal relationship or explained by prior vulnerability that influe...

    Authors: Annie Herbert, Jon Heron, Maria Barnes, Christine Barter, Gene Feder, Khadija Meghrawi, Eszter Szilassy, Abigail Fraser and Laura D. Howe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2022 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  19. To investigate the prevalence of robust conclusions in systematic reviews addressing missing (participant) outcome data via a novel framework of sensitivity analyses and examine the agreement with the current ...

    Authors: Loukia M. Spineli, Chrysostomos Kalyvas and Katerina Papadimitropoulou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:323

    Content type: Research article

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  20. It is not a rare clinical scenario to have patients presenting with coexisting malignant tumor and tuberculosis. Whether it is feasible to conduct programmed death-(ligand) 1 [PD-(L)1] inhibitors to these pati...

    Authors: Shan Su, Mei-Feng Ye, Xiao-Ting Cai, Xue Bai, Zhi-Hao Huang, Si-Cong Ma, Jian-Jun Zou, Yu-Xiang Wen, Li-Juan Wu, Xue-Jun Guo, Xian-Lan Zhang, Wen-Chang Cen, Duo-Hua Su, Hui-Yi Huang and Zhong-Yi Dong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:322

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown mixed results for depression treatment. The efficacies of tDCS combination therapies have not been investigated deliberately. This review aims to evalua...

    Authors: Jingying Wang, Huichun Luo, Rasmus Schülke, Xinyi Geng, Barbara J. Sahakian and Shouyan Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:319

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Polypharmacy is common among older people and is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, little is known about whether the mortality risk is related to specific medications among older adults wit...

    Authors: Yun-Ting Huang, Andrew Steptoe, Li Wei and Paola Zaninotto

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:321

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that has been associated with a plurality of diseases in observational studies. The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) studies of ...

    Authors: Susanna C. Larsson and Stephen Burgess

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:320

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Short-course, rifamycin-based regimens could facilitate scale-up of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT), but it is unclear how stringently tuberculosis (TB) disease should be ruled out before TPT use.

    Authors: Emily A. Kendall, Hamidah Hussain, Amber Kunkel, Rachel W. Kubiak, Anete Trajman, Richard Menzies and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:315

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed the polygenic nature of psychiatric disorders and discovered a few of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with multiple psychiatric di...

    Authors: Haojie Lu, Jiahao Qiao, Zhonghe Shao, Ting Wang, Shuiping Huang and Ping Zeng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:314

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we obs...

    Authors: Mathilde His, Vivian Viallon, Laure Dossus, Julie A. Schmidt, Ruth C. Travis, Marc J. Gunter, Kim Overvad, Cecilie Kyrø, Anne Tjønneland, Lucie Lécuyer, Joseph A. Rothwell, Gianluca Severi, Theron Johnson, Verena Katzke, Matthias B. Schulze, Giovanna Masala…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:312

    Content type: Research article

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  27. During starvation, fasting, or a diet containing little digestible carbohydrates, the circulating insulin levels are decreased. This promotes lipolysis, and the breakdown of fat becomes the major source of ene...

    Authors: Hubert Kolb, Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling, Martina Lenzen-Schulte, Nanette C. Schloot and Stephan Martin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:313

    Content type: Review

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  28. Prenatal adverse environments can cause fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and higher susceptibility to multiple diseases after birth, related to multi-organ development programming changes mediated ...

    Authors: Caiyun Ge, Dan Xu, Pengxia Yu, Man Fang, Juanjuan Guo, Dan Xu, Yuan Qiao, Sijia Chen, Hui Wang and Yuanzhen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:311

    Content type: Research article

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  29. From 2 January to 14 February 2021, a local outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in Shijiazhuang, the capital city of Hebei Province, with a population of 10 million. We analyzed the characteristics of the local outb...

    Authors: Wenlong Zhu, Mengxi Zhang, Jinhua Pan, Ye Yao and Weibing Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:308

    Content type: Research article

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  30. There have been ongoing efforts to understand when and how data from observational studies can be applied to clinical and regulatory decision making. The objective of this review was to assess the comparabilit...

    Authors: Yoon Duk Hong, Jeroen P. Jansen, John Guerino, Marc L. Berger, William Crown, Wim G. Goettsch, C. Daniel Mullins, Richard J. Willke and Lucinda S. Orsini

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:307

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative agent that may have the potential to reduce the risk of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). This study aimed to establish whether prophylactic nocturnal dexmedetomidine safely re...

    Authors: Chun-hui Dong, Chao-nan Gao, Xiao-hua An, Na Li, Le Yang, De-cai Li and Qi Tan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:306

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested a non-significant increased risk of stroke among proton pump inhibitor (PPI) users, the association has not been confirmed. We evaluated the associat...

    Authors: Man Yang, Qiangsheng He, Fang Gao, Krish Nirantharakumar, Tonny Veenith, Xiwen Qin, Amy T. Page, Martin C. S. Wong, Junjie Huang, Zi Chong Kuo, Bin Xia, Changhua Zhang, Yulong He, Wenbo Meng, Jinqiu Yuan and Yihang Pan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:316

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Previous cohort studies have investigated the relationship between self-reported physical activity (PA) and dementia. Evidence from objective device-measured PA data is lacking. This study aimed to explore the...

    Authors: Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Donald M. Lyall, Stuart R. Gray, Jason M. R. Gill, Naveed Sattar, Paul Welsh, Terence J. Quinn, William Stewart, Jill P. Pell, Frederick K. Ho and Carlos Celis-Morales

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:305

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Lithium is prescribed during pregnancy, but there is limited information about pregnancy and neonatal outcomes following in utero exposure. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the associations between lithiu...

    Authors: Roxanne Hastie, Stephen Tong, Richard Hiscock, Anthea Lindquist, Linda Lindström, Anna-Karin Wikström and Inger Sundström-Poromaa

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:291

    Content type: Research article

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  35. How best to prioritise COVID-19 vaccination within and between countries has been a public health and an ethical challenge for decision-makers globally. We reviewed epidemiological and economic modelling evide...

    Authors: Nuru Saadi, Y-Ling Chi, Srobana Ghosh, Rosalind M. Eggo, Ciara V. McCarthy, Matthew Quaife, Jeanette Dawa, Mark Jit and Anna Vassall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:318

    Content type: Review

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  36. In order to understand the intricate patterns of interplay connected to the formation and maintenance of depressive symptomatology, repeated measures investigations focusing on within-person relationships betw...

    Authors: Omid V. Ebrahimi, Julian Burger, Asle Hoffart and Sverre Urnes Johnson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:317

    Content type: Research article

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  37. We developed an integrated model called Microsimulation for Income and Child Health (MICH) that provides a tool for analysing the prospective effects of fiscal policies on childhood health in European countrie...

    Authors: Davide Rasella, Lorenzo Richiardi, Nicolai Brachowicz, H. Xavier Jara, Mark Hanson, Delia Boccia, Matteo G. Richiardi and Costanza Pizzi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:310

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Intensive malaria control may have additional benefits beyond reducing the incidence of symptomatic malaria. We compared antibiotic treatment of children before and after the implementation of highly effective...

    Authors: Paul J. Krezanoski, Michelle E. Roh, John Rek, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Sarah G. Staedke, Susan Nayiga, Michelle S. Hsiang, David Smith, Moses Kamya and Grant Dorsey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:294

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Nutritional factors are essential for the functioning of the immune system and could therefore play a role in COVID-19 but evidence is needed. Our objective was to study the associations between diet and the r...

    Authors: Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy, Bernard Srour, Laurent Bourhis, Nathalie Arnault, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, Younes Esseddik, Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, Julien Allègre, Benjamin Allès, Valentina A. Andreeva, Julia Baudry, Leopold K. Fezeu, Pilar Galan, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:290

    Content type: Research article

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  40. We aim to determine whether adult retrospective report of child abuse is associated with greater risk of prospectively assessed harmful environments in childhood. We assessed possible recall basis by adult dep...

    Authors: Snehal M. Pinto Pereira, Nina T. Rogers and Christine Power

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:286

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Defining the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children remains challenging. Furthermore, a dichotomous MetS diagnosis can limit the power to study associations. We sought to characterize the serum metabolite signa...

    Authors: Sandi M. Azab, Russell J. de Souza, Amel Lamri, Meera Shanmuganathan, Zachary Kroezen, Karleen M. Schulze, Dipika Desai, Natalie C. Williams, Katherine M. Morrison, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Koon K. Teo, Philip Britz-McKibbin and Sonia S. Anand

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:292

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Depicting the heterogeneity and functional characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is necessary to achieve precision medicine for bladder cancer (BLCA). Although classical molecular subtypes effect...

    Authors: Jiao Hu, Belaydi Othmane, Anze Yu, Huihuang Li, Zhiyong Cai, Xu Chen, Wenbiao Ren, Jinbo Chen and Xiongbing Zu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:289

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:295

  43. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) at genital and extragenital sites is needed for most key populations, but molecular diagnostic tests for CT/NG are costly. We aimed to deter...

    Authors: Lily Aboud, Yangqi Xu, Eric P. F. Chow, Teodora Wi, Rachel Baggaley, Maeve B. Mello, Christopher K. Fairley and Jason J. Ong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:285

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has limited effects in the treatment of solid tumors. Sulforaphane (SFN) is known to play an important role in inhibiting tumor growth, but its effect on CAR-T ...

    Authors: Chunyi Shen, Zhen Zhang, Yonggui Tian, Feng Li, Lingxiao Zhou, Wenyi Jiang, Li Yang, Bin Zhang, Liping Wang and Yi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:283

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Dietary biomarkers may complement dietary intake assessment made by dietary questionnaires. We developed an a-posteriori dietary biomarkers score based on Mediterranean diet food groups and evaluated its assoc...

    Authors: Nicole Hidalgo-Liberona, Tomás Meroño, Raul Zamora-Ros, Montserrat Rabassa, Richard Semba, Toshiko Tanaka, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Cristina Andres-Lacueva and Antonio Cherubini

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:280

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and brain volume loss are prevalent in older individuals. We aimed to assess the causal effect of atrial fibrillation on brain volume phenotypes by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

    Authors: Sehoon Park, Soojin Lee, Yaerim Kim, Semin Cho, Kwangsoo Kim, Yong Chul Kim, Seung Seok Han, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Soryoung Lee, Eue-Keun Choi, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim and Dong Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:274

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques ar...

    Authors: Carlota Dobaño, Selena Alonso, Mariona Fernández de Sevilla, Marta Vidal, Alfons Jiménez, Gemma Pons Tomas, Chenjerai Jairoce, María Melé Casas, Rocío Rubio, María Hernández García, Gemma Ruiz-Olalla, Mònica Girona-Alarcón, Diana Barrios, Rebeca Santano, Robert A. Mitchell, Laura Puyol…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:309

    Content type: Research article

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