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  1. In November 2011, Malawi introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the routine infant schedule. Four to 7 years after introduction (2015–2018), rolling prospective nasopharyngeal car...

    Authors: J. Lourenço, U. Obolski, T. D. Swarthout, A. Gori, N. Bar-Zeev, D. Everett, A. W. Kamng’ona, T. S. Mwalukomo, A. A. Mataya, C. Mwansambo, M. Banda, S. Gupta, N. French and R. S. Heyderman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:219

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The nature of symptoms in the prodromal period of first episode psychosis (FEP) remains unclear. The objective was to determine the patterns of symptoms recorded in primary care in the 5 years before FEP diagn...

    Authors: Ying Chen, Saeed Farooq, John Edwards, Carolyn A. Chew-Graham, David Shiers, Martin Frisher, Richard Hayward, Athula Sumathipala and Kelvin P. Jordan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:227

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Associations between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were discovered in observational studies in both European and East Asian populations. However, whether such associations are c...

    Authors: Ping Zeng, Ting Wang, Junnian Zheng and Xiang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:225

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Even though in situ breast cancer (BCIS) accounts for a large proportion of the breast cancers diagnosed, few studies have investigated potential risk factors for BCIS. Their results suggest that some establis...

    Authors: Nena Karavasiloglou, Anika Hüsing, Giovanna Masala, Carla H. van Gils, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Jenny Chang-Claude, Inge Huybrechts, Elisabete Weiderpass, Marc Gunter, Patrick Arveux, Agnès Fournier, Marina Kvaskoff, Anne Tjønneland, Cecilie Kyrø, Christina C. Dahm, Helene Tilma Vistisen…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:221

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Excess weight and unexpected weight loss are associated with multiple disease states and increased morbidity and mortality, but weight measurement is not routine in many primary care settings. The aim of this ...

    Authors: B. D. Nicholson, P. Aveyard, C. R. Bankhead, W. Hamilton, F. D. R. Hobbs and S. Lay-Flurrie

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:222

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Insulin resistance (IR) is predictive for type 2 diabetes and associated with various metabolic abnormalities in fasting conditions. However, limited data are available on how IR affects metabolic responses in...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Jari Jokelainen, Juha Auvinen, Katri Puukka, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Johannes Kettunen, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen and Mika Ala-Korpela

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:217

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Hg exposure. This study aimed to invest...

    Authors: Guoying Wang, Jessica DiBari, Eric Bind, Andrew M. Steffens, Jhindan Mukherjee, Tami R. Bartell, David C. Bellinger, Xiumei Hong, Yuelong Ji, Mei-Cheng Wang, Marsha Wills-Karp, Tina L. Cheng and Xiaobin Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:216

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although long-term alcohol and tobacco use have widely been recognised as important risk factors for cancer, the impacts of alcohol and tobacco health policies on cancer mortality have not been examined in pre...

    Authors: Heng Jiang, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Yong Gan, Dallas English and Richard Chenhall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:213

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Outcomes of processes questioning a physician’s ability to practise —e.g. disciplinary or regulatory— may strongly impact their career and provided care. However, it is unclear what factors relate systematical...

    Authors: Javier A. Caballero and Steve P. Brown

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:211

    Content type: Research Article

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  10. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in the first 2 years of life can impair linear growth. We sought to determine risk factors for linear growth faltering and to build a clinical prediction tool to identify chil...

    Authors: Rebecca L. Brander, Patricia B. Pavlinac, Judd L. Walson, Grace C. John-Stewart, Marcia R. Weaver, Abu S. G. Faruque, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Dipika Sur, Samba O. Sow, M. Jahangir Hossain, Pedro L. Alonso, Robert F. Breiman, Dilruba Nasrin, James P. Nataro, Myron M. Levine and Karen L. Kotloff

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:214

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically. This worldwide epidemic has important consequences, including psychiatric, psychological and psychosocial disorders in child...

    Authors: Mariachiara Di Cesare, Maroje Sorić, Pascal Bovet, J Jaime Miranda, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Gretchen A Stevens, Avula Laxmaiah, Andre-Pascal Kengne and James Bentham

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:212

    Content type: Review

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  12. The term ‘double burden of malnutrition’ is usually interpreted in terms of the physical status of children: stunted and wasted children on the one hand and overweight/obese children on the other. There is a t...

    Authors: Martha Mwangome and Andrew M. Prentice

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:210

    Content type: Editorial

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  13. Stunting affects more than 161 million children worldwide and can compromise cognitive development beginning early in childhood. There is a paucity of research using neuroimaging tools in conjunction with sens...

    Authors: Wanze Xie, Sarah K. G. Jensen, Mark Wade, Swapna Kumar, Alissa Westerlund, Shahria H. Kakon, Rashidul Haque, William A. Petri and Charles A. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:199

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tuberculosis (TB) control efforts are hampered by an imperfect understanding of TB epidemiology. The true age distribution of disease is unknown because a large proportion of individuals with active TB remain ...

    Authors: Romain Ragonnet, James M. Trauer, Nicholas Geard, Nick Scott and Emma S. McBryde

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:208

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging has introduced prognostic stage based on anatomic stage combined with biologic factors. We aimed to validate the prognostic stage in HER...

    Authors: Maria Vittoria Dieci, Giancarlo Bisagni, Alba A. Brandes, Antonio Frassoldati, Luigi Cavanna, Francesco Giotta, Michele Aieta, Vittorio Gebbia, Antonino Musolino, Ornella Garrone, Michela Donadio, Anita Rimanti, Alessandra Beano, Claudio Zamagni, Hector Soto Parra, Federico Piacentini…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:207

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Clinical guidelines and public health authorities lack recommendations on scalable approaches to defining and monitoring the occurrence and severity of bleeding in populations prescribed antithrombotic therapy.

    Authors: Laura Pasea, Sheng-Chia Chung, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Anoop D. Shah, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Victoria Allan, James T. Teo, Daniel Bean, Reecha Sofat, Richard Dobson, Amitava Banerjee, Riyaz S. Patel, Adam Timmis, Spiros Denaxas and Harry Hemingway

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:206

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The peer review process has been questioned as it may fail to allow the publication of high-quality articles. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy in identifying inadequate reporting in RCT reports by ear...

    Authors: Anthony Chauvin, Philippe Ravaud, David Moher, David Schriger, Sally Hopewell, Daniel Shanahan, Sabina Alam, Gabriel Baron, Jean-Philippe Regnaux, Perrine Crequit, Valeria Martinez, Carolina Riveros, Laurence Le Cleach, Alessandro Recchioni, Douglas G. Altman and Isabelle Boutron

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:205

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Brain innate immunity is vital for maintaining normal brain functions. Immune homeostatic imbalances play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). However,...

    Authors: Shu-zhen Zhang, Qin-qin Wang, Qiao-qiao Yang, Huan-yu Gu, Yan-qing Yin, Yan-dong Li, Jin-can Hou, Rong Chen, Qing-qing Sun, Ying-feng Sun, Gang Hu and Jia-wei Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:204

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with mental health problems. Resilience factors (RFs) reduce mental health problems following CA. Yet, knowledge on the nature of RFs is scarce. Therefore, we ex...

    Authors: J. Fritz, J. Stochl, E. I. Fried, I. M. Goodyer, C. D. van Borkulo, P. O. Wilkinson and A.-L. van Harmelen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:203

    Content type: Research article

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  20. It is not known whether segmentation of an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle, with freezing of all embryos prior to transfer, increases the chance of a live birth after all embryos are transferred.

    Authors: Andrew D. A. C. Smith, Kate Tilling, Deborah A. Lawlor and Scott M. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:202

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Clinicians are less likely to prescribe guideline-recommended treatments to people with multimorbidity than to people with a single condition. Doubts as to the applicability of clinical trials of drug treatmen...

    Authors: Peter Hanlon, Laurie Hannigan, Jesus Rodriguez-Perez, Colin Fischbacher, Nicky J. Welton, Sofia Dias, Frances S. Mair, Bruce Guthrie, Sarah Wild and David A. McAllister

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:201

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Niemann–Pick disease type C is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes and lysosomes. We sought to develop new therape...

    Authors: Mark L. Schultz, Maria V. Fawaz, Ruth D. Azaria, Todd C. Hollon, Elaine A. Liu, Thaddeus J. Kunkel, Troy A. Halseth, Kelsey L. Krus, Ran Ming, Emily E. Morin, Hayley S. McLoughlin, David D. Bushart, Henry L. Paulson, Vikram G. Shakkottai, Daniel A. Orringer, Anna S. Schwendeman…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:200

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the benefit-risk ratio of aspirin for primary prevention of CVD with a particular focus on sub...

    Authors: Georg Gelbenegger, Marek Postula, Ladislav Pecen, Sigrun Halvorsen, Maciej Lesiak, Christian Schoergenhofer, Bernd Jilma, Christian Hengstenberg and Jolanta M. Siller-Matula

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:198

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Dyslipidemia and inflammation are closely interrelated contributors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Disorders of lipid metabolism initiate an inflammatory and immune-mediated response in atherosclerosi...

    Authors: Ruurt A. Jukema, Tarek A. N. Ahmed and Jean-Claude Tardif

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:197

    Content type: Opinion

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  25. Periconceptional folic acid prevents neural tube defects (NTDs), but it is uncertain whether there are benefits for offspring neurodevelopment arising from continued maternal folic acid supplementation beyond ...

    Authors: Helene McNulty, Mark Rollins, Tony Cassidy, Aoife Caffrey, Barry Marshall, James Dornan, Marian McLaughlin, Breige A. McNulty, Mary Ward, J. J. Strain, Anne M. Molloy, Diane J. Lees-Murdock, Colum P. Walsh and Kristina Pentieva

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:196

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Artificial intelligence (AI) research in healthcare is accelerating rapidly, with potential applications being demonstrated across various domains of medicine. However, there are currently limited examples of ...

    Authors: Christopher J. Kelly, Alan Karthikesalingam, Mustafa Suleyman, Greg Corrado and Dominic King

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:195

    Content type: Opinion

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  27. Age-related frailty is a multidimensional dynamic condition associated with adverse patient outcomes and high costs for health systems. Several interventions have been proposed to tackle frailty. This correspo...

    Authors: Maura Marcucci, Sarah Damanti, Federico Germini, Joao Apostolo, Elzbieta Bobrowicz-Campos, Holly Gwyther, Carol Holland, Donata Kurpas, Maria Bujnowska-Fedak, Katarzyna Szwamel, Silvina Santana, Alessandro Nobili, Barbara D’Avanzo and Antonio Cano

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:193

    Content type: Correspondence

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  28. Clinical prediction models are useful in estimating a patient’s risk of having a certain disease or experiencing an event in the future based on their current characteristics. Defining an appropriate risk thre...

    Authors: Laure Wynants, Maarten van Smeden, David J. McLernon, Dirk Timmerman, Ewout W. Steyerberg and Ben Van Calster

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:192

    Content type: Opinion

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  29. Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with stroke incidence and mortality. Distribution of stroke risk factors is changing worldwide; evidence on these trends is crucial to the allocation of resources for p...

    Authors: Abolfazl Avan, Hadi Digaleh, Mario Di Napoli, Saverio Stranges, Reza Behrouz, Golnaz Shojaeianbabaei, Amin Amiri, Reza Tabrizi, Naghmeh Mokhber, J. David Spence and Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:191

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC) patients, variance of tumor response to induction chemotherapy (ICT) was observed. We developed and validated a novel imaging biomarker to predict wh...

    Authors: Di Dong, Fan Zhang, Lian-Zhen Zhong, Meng-Jie Fang, Cheng-Long Huang, Ji-Jin Yao, Ying Sun, Jie Tian, Jun Ma and Ling-Long Tang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:190

    Content type: Research article

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  31. There is growing interest in evaluating differences in healthcare interventions across routinely collected demographic characteristics. However, individual subgroup analyses in randomized controlled trials are...

    Authors: Patrick Liu, John P. A. Ioannidis, Joseph S. Ross, Sanket S. Dhruva, Anita T. Luxkaranayagam, Vasilis Vasiliou and Joshua D. Wallach

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:188

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Customized birth weight charts take into account physiological maternal characteristics that are known to influence fetal growth to differentiate between physiological and pathological abnormal size at birth. ...

    Authors: Jan S. Erkamp, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Annemarie G. M. G. J. Mulders, Eric A. P. Steegers, Irwin K. M. Reiss, Liesbeth Duijts and Romy Gaillard

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:186

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The current World Health Organization classification recognises 12 major subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although these subtypes differ on molecular and clinical levels, they are generally managed as t...

    Authors: Tobias Klatte, Kevin M. Gallagher, Luca Afferi, Alessandro Volpe, Nils Kroeger, Silvia Ribback, Alan McNeill, Antony C. P. Riddick, James N. Armitage, Tevita F. ‘Aho, Tim Eisen, Kate Fife, Axel Bex, Allan J. Pantuck and Grant D. Stewart

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:182

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The identification of individuals at increased risk of poor health-related outcomes is a priority. Geriatric research has proposed several indicators shown to be associated with these outcomes, but a head-to-h...

    Authors: Alberto Zucchelli, Davide L. Vetrano, Giulia Grande, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Laura Fratiglioni, Alessandra Marengoni and Debora Rizzuto

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:185

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The healthcare system can be understood as the dynamic result of the interaction of hospitals, patients, providers, and government configuring a complex network of reciprocal influences. In order to better und...

    Authors: Felix Rigoli, Sergio Mascarenhas, Domingos Alves, Tiago Canelas and Geraldo Duarte

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:184

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Please see related article: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12916-019-1410-x

    Authors: Megan Wilson-Jones, Kyla Smith, Dan Jones, Helen Hamilton, Leah Richardson, Alison Macintyre, Om Prasad Gautam, Erik Harvey and Henry Northover

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:183

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2019 17:173

  37. Vaccination has reduced the global incidence of measles to the lowest rates in history. However, local interruption of measles virus transmission requires sustained high levels of population immunity that can ...

    Authors: Sebastian Funk, Jennifer K. Knapp, Emmaculate Lebo, Susan E. Reef, Alya J. Dabbagh, Katrina Kretsinger, Mark Jit, W. John Edmunds and Peter M. Strebel

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:180

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  38. Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in...

    Authors: Mathilde His, Vivian Viallon, Laure Dossus, Audrey Gicquiau, David Achaintre, Augustin Scalbert, Pietro Ferrari, Isabelle Romieu, N. Charlotte Onland-Moret, Elisabete Weiderpass, Christina C. Dahm, Kim Overvad, Anja Olsen, Anne Tjønneland, Agnès Fournier, Joseph A. Rothwell…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:178

    Content type: Research article

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  39. BMC Medicine was launched in November 2003 as an open access, open peer-reviewed general medical journal that has a broad remit to publish “outstanding and influential research in all areas of clinical practice, ...

    Authors: Deborah A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:177

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  40. We have previously demonstrated in the DIABRISK-SL trial that a trimonthly pragmatic lifestyle modification (P-LSM), as compared to a 12-monthly LSM advice (C-LSM), significantly reduced the primary composite ...

    Authors: Nikolaos Fountoulakis, Mahen Wijesuriya, Luigi Gnudi, Martin Gulliford and Janaka Karalliedde

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:162

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2019 17:121

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:146

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