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  1. Early provision of palliative care, at least 3–4 months before death, can improve patient quality of life and reduce burdensome treatments and financial costs. However, there is wide variation in the duration ...

    Authors: Roberta I. Jordan, Matthew J. Allsop, Yousuf ElMokhallalati, Catriona E. Jackson, Helen L. Edwards, Emma J. Chapman, Luc Deliens and Michael I. Bennett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:368

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Patients with coeliac disease (CD) commonly report a variety of adverse symptoms to gluten, but descriptions of the symptomatic response in the literature may have been confounded by the presence of food compo...

    Authors: Jason A. Tye-Din, A. James M. Daveson, Kaela E. Goldstein, Holly L. Hand, Kristin M. Neff, Gautam Goel, Leslie J. Williams, Kenneth E. Truitt and Robert P. Anderson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:362

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Given that an individual’s age and gender are strongly predictive of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, do such factors imply anything about preferable therapeutic options?

    Authors: Ute Seeland, Flaminia Coluzzi, Maurizio Simmaco, Cameron Mura, Philip E. Bourne, Max Heiland, Robert Preissner and Saskia Preissner

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The number of patients living with co-existing diseases is growing. This study aimed to assess the extent of multimorbidity, medication use, and drug- and gene-based interactions in patients following a non-ST...

    Authors: R. M. Turner, E. M. de Koning, V. Fontana, A. Thompson and M. Pirmohamed

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:367

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is an inexpensive clinical surrogate marker for insulin resistance. However, the relationship between TyG index and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unc...

    Authors: Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han and Cheol-Young Park

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:361

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) account for the majority of all limb amputations and hospitalizations due to diabetes complications. With 30 million cases of diabetes in the USA and 500,000 new diagnoses each year...

    Authors: Chunan Liu, Alise J. Ponsero, David G. Armstrong, Benjamin A. Lipsky and Bonnie L. Hurwitz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:358

    Content type: Review

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  7. Sleep disturbance is common in dementia and often treated with Z-drugs (zopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem). While some observational studies suggest that Z-drugs are associated with adverse events such as fall...

    Authors: Kathryn Richardson, Yoon K. Loke, Chris Fox, Ian Maidment, Robert Howard, Nicholas Steel, Antony Arthur, Penelope J. Boyd, Clare Aldus, Clive Ballard and George M. Savva

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:351

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Prediction of pregnancy-related disorders is usually done based on established and easily measured risk factors. Recent advances in metabolomics may provide earlier and more accurate prediction of women at ris...

    Authors: Nancy McBride, Paul Yousefi, Sara L. White, Lucilla Poston, Diane Farrar, Naveed Sattar, Scott M. Nelson, John Wright, Dan Mason, Matthew Suderman, Caroline Relton and Deborah A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:366

    Content type: Research article

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  9. There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-m...

    Authors: Tammy Y. N. Tong, Paul N. Appleby, Miranda E. G. Armstrong, Georgina K. Fensom, Anika Knuppel, Keren Papier, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Ruth C. Travis and Timothy J. Key

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:353

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The complexity of psychopathology is evident from its multifactorial etiology and diversity of symptom profiles and hampers effective treatment. In psychotherapy, therapists approach this complexity by using c...

    Authors: Lino von Klipstein, Harriëtte Riese, Date C. van der Veen, Michelle N. Servaas and Robert A. Schoevers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:345

    Content type: Opinion

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    A Letter has been published.

  11. Although neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evalu...

    Authors: Meghan A. Cupp, Margarita Cariolou, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Dagfinn Aune, Evangelos Evangelou and Antonio J. Berlanga-Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:360

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Sleep-wakefulness cycles are an essential diagnostic criterion for disorders of consciousness (DOC), differentiating prolonged DOC from coma. Specific sleep features, like the presence of sleep spindles, are a...

    Authors: Isabella Mertel, Yuri G. Pavlov, Christine Barner, Friedemann Müller, Susanne Diekelmann and Boris Kotchoubey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:350

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Adaptive designs for clinical trials permit alterations to a study in response to accumulating data in order to make trials more flexible, ethical, and efficient. These benefits are achieved while preserving t...

    Authors: Thomas Burnett, Pavel Mozgunov, Philip Pallmann, Sofia S. Villar, Graham M. Wheeler and Thomas Jaki

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:352

    Content type: Correspondence

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  14. Metastatic breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in woman. Brain metastasis is a common and devastating site of relapse for several breast cancer molecular subtypes, including oestrogen recep...

    Authors: Sara Charmsaz, Ben Doherty, Sinéad Cocchiglia, Damir Varešlija, Attilio Marino, Nicola Cosgrove, Ricardo Marques, Nolan Priedigkeit, Siobhan Purcell, Fiona Bane, Jarlath Bolger, Christopher Byrne, Philip J. O’Halloran, Francesca Brett, Katherine Sheehan, Kieran Brennan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:349

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive, degenerative muscular disorder and cognitive dysfunction caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. It is characterized by excess inflammatory responses in ...

    Authors: Yasunari Matsuzaka, Jun Tanihata, Yoshiko Ooshima, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Shouta Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Mika Terumitsu, Ryu Yashiro, Hirofumi Komaki, Akihiko Ishiyama, Yasushi Oya, Yukiko U. Inoue, Takayoshi Inoue, Shin’ichi Takeda and Kazuo Hashido

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:343

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cannabis use is increasing in women of reproductive age, but whether cannabis use disorders increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in this population is not known. Cannabis may cause tachycardia...

    Authors: Nathalie Auger, Gilles Paradis, Nancy Low, Aimina Ayoub, Siyi He and Brian J. Potter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:328

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) alters platelet reactivity, and as a consequence, patients living with HIV may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current evidence on platelet activation ...

    Authors: Bongani B. Nkambule, Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Zibusiso Mkandla, Tinashe Mutize, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Tawanda M. Nyambuya and Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:357

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. With a suite of promising new RSV prophylactics on the horizon, including long-acting monoclonal antibodies and new vaccines, it is likely that one or more of these will replace the current monoclonal Palivizu...

    Authors: David Hodgson, Richard Pebody, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Marc Baguelin and Katherine E. Atkins

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:348

    Content type: Research article

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  19. High blood pressure (BP) is a key modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease and a likely determinant of other adverse health outcomes. While socioeconomic inequalities in BP are well documented, it rema...

    Authors: David Bann, Meg Fluharty, Rebecca Hardy and Shaun Scholes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:338

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip replacement (THR) surgery is a serious complication that negatively impacts patients’ lives and is financially burdensome for healthcare providers. As the n...

    Authors: Kirsty Garfield, Sian Noble, Erik Lenguerrand, Michael R. Whitehouse, Adrian Sayers, Mike R. Reed and Ashley W. Blom

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:335

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related mortality has markedly declined. As HAART is becoming increasingly available, the infe...

    Authors: Sonia Menon, Lenka Benova and Hillary Mabeya

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:341

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. ABO blood group is associated with differences in lifespan, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, for reasons which are incompletely understood. To gain sex-specific additional insight about potential mech...

    Authors: Shun Li and C. M. Schooling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:334

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Observational studies have investigated the association of risk factors with breast cancer prognosis. However, the results have been conflicting and it has been challenging to establish causality due to potent...

    Authors: Maria Escala-Garcia, Anna Morra, Sander Canisius, Jenny Chang-Claude, Siddhartha Kar, Wei Zheng, Stig E. Bojesen, Doug Easton, Paul D. P. Pharoah and Marjanka K. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:327

    Content type: Research article

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  24. It has been presumed that Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted between men only through anal or oral sex, but no mathematical models have tested this presumption.

    Authors: Xianglong Xu, Eric P. F. Chow, Jason J. Ong, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, Zhuoru Zou, Jane S. Hocking, Christopher K. Fairley and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:326

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Limited evidence exists on the role of glucose-lowering drugs in patients with COVID-19. Our main objective was to examine the association between in-hospital death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering dr...

    Authors: Luis M. Pérez-Belmonte, José David Torres-Peña, María D. López-Carmona, M. Mar. Ayala-Gutiérrez, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez, Lucía Jorge Huerta, Jaime Alonso Muñoz, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Manel Madrazo, Marcos Guzmán Garcia, Beatriz Vicente Montes, Joaquim Fernández Sola, Javier Ena, Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer, Carmen Mella Pérez, Carlos Jorge Ripper…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:359

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Severe anemia is common and frequently fatal for hospitalized patients in limited-resource settings. Lack of access to low-cost, accurate, and rapid diagnosis of anemia impedes the delivery of life-saving care...

    Authors: Marina S. Perez-Plazola, Erika A. Tyburski, Luke R. Smart, Thad A. Howard, Amanda Pfeiffer, Russell E. Ware, Wilbur A. Lam and Patrick T. McGann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:337

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  27. Interpersonal violence is a leading cause of death and disability globally, has immediate and long-term impacts on individuals’ health and wellbeing, and impacts global health care expenditures and national ec...

    Authors: Nadia Butler, Zara Quigg and Mark A. Bellis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:325

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Links between parental socioeconomic position during childhood and subsequent risks of developing mental disorders have rarely been examined across the diagnostic spectrum. We conducted a comprehensive analysi...

    Authors: Christian Hakulinen, Pearl L. H. Mok, Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Carsten B. Pedersen, Preben B. Mortensen, Esben Agerbo and Roger T. Webb

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:323

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The placebo response in patients with diabetes mellitus is very common. A systematic evaluation needs to be updated with the current evidence about the placebo response in diabetes mellitus and the associated ...

    Authors: Chu Lin, Xiaoling Cai, Wenjia Yang, Fang Lv, Lin Nie and Linong Ji

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:322

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2.2 calls for an end to all forms of malnutrition, with 2025 targets of a 40% reduction in stunting (relative to 2012), for wasting to occur in less than 5% of children, and ...

    Authors: Nick Scott, Dominic Delport, Samuel Hainsworth, Ruth Pearson, Christopher Morgan, Shan Huang, Jonathan K. Akuoku, Ellen Piwoz, Meera Shekar, Carol Levin, Mike Toole and Caroline SE Homer

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:356

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. As The Gambia aims to achieve malaria elimination by 2030, serological assays are a useful surveillance tool to monitor trends in malaria incidence and evaluate community-based interventions.

    Authors: Lindsey Wu, Julia Mwesigwa, Muna Affara, Mamadou Bah, Simon Correa, Tom Hall, Susheel K. Singh, James G. Beeson, Kevin K. A. Tetteh, Immo Kleinschmidt, Umberto D’Alessandro and Chris Drakeley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:331

    Content type: Research article

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  32. There is now evolving data exploring the relationship between depression and various individual lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. While this data is...

    Authors: Jerome Sarris, Russell Thomson, Fiona Hargraves, Melissa Eaton, Michael de Manincor, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Alison R. Yung and Joseph Firth

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:354

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Keratins (Ks) represent tissue-specific proteins. K18 is produced in hepatocytes while K19, the most widely used ductular reaction (DR) marker, is found in cholangiocytes and hepatic progenitor cells. K18-base...

    Authors: Karim Hamesch, Nurdan Guldiken, Mahmoud Aly, Norbert Hüser, Daniel Hartmann, Pierre Rufat, Marianne Ziol, Katharina Remih, Georg Lurje, Bernhard Scheiner, Christian Trautwein, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger, Sebastian Mueller, Tony Bruns, Pierre Nahon…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:336

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all children by the age of 2 years, with the risk of hospitalisation highest in the first 6 months of life. Development and licensure of a vaccine to prevent se...

    Authors: Patricia T. Campbell, Nicholas Geard and Alexandra B. Hogan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:319

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Genome-wide and clinical studies have linked the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with hypertension, whilst limited evidence shows that intervention with rib...

    Authors: Mary Ward, Catherine F. Hughes, J. J. Strain, Rosie Reilly, Conal Cunningham, Anne M. Molloy, Geraldine Horigan, Miriam Casey, Kevin McCarroll, Maurice O’Kane, Michael J. Gibney, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, Breige A. McNulty, Adrian McCann, Laura Kirwan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:318

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders that increase physical health risks and are leading causes of global disability. Several forms of physical fitness could be modifiable risk factors for common...

    Authors: Aaron A. Kandola, David P. J. Osborn, Brendon Stubbs, Karmel W. Choi and Joseph F. Hayes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:303

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Frailty has been associated with worse prognosis following COVID-19 infection. While several studies have reported the association between frailty and COVID-19 mortality or length of hospital stay, there have ...

    Authors: Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Peter Hanlon, Stuart R. Gray, Paul Welsh, Jason M. R. Gill, Hamish Foster, S. Vittal Katikireddi, Donald Lyall, Daniel F. Mackay, Catherine A. O’Donnell, Naveed Sattar, Barbara I. Nicholl, Jill P. Pell, Bhautesh D. Jani, Frederick K. Ho, Frances S. Mair…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:355

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The need for better methods for evaluation in health research has been widely recognised. The ‘complexity turn’ has drawn attention to the limitations of relying on causal inference from randomised controlled ...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Judith Green, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Mark Petticrew, Trish Greenhalgh, Benjamin Hanckel and Sara Shaw

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:301

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  39. Clinical scores to determine early (6-month) antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality risk have not been developed for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to 70% of people living with HIV. In the absence of validated...

    Authors: Andrew F. Auld, Katherine Fielding, Tefera Agizew, Alice Maida, Anikie Mathoma, Rosanna Boyd, Anand Date, Sherri L. Pals, George Bicego, Yuliang Liu, Ray W. Shiraishi, Peter Ehrenkranz, Christopher Serumola, Unami Mathebula, Heather Alexander, Salome Charalambous…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:311

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been ...

    Authors: Dietrich Rothenbacher, Martin Rehm, Licia Iacoviello, Simona Costanzo, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Jill J. F. Belch, Stefan Söderberg, Johan Hultdin, Veikko Salomaa, Pekka Jousilahti, Allan Linneberg, Susana Sans, Teresa Padró, Barbara Thorand, Christa Meisinger, Frank Kee…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:300

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Mitigating or reducing the risk of medication harm is a global policy priority. But evidence reflecting preventable medication harm in medical care and the factors that derive this harm remain unknown. Therefo...

    Authors: Alexander Hodkinson, Natasha Tyler, Darren M. Ashcroft, Richard N. Keers, Kanza Khan, Denham Phipps, Aseel Abuzour, Peter Bower, Anthony Avery, Stephen Campbell and Maria Panagioti

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:313

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Wearable biometric monitoring devices (BMDs) have the potential to transform the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by shifting the collection of outcome data from single measurements at predefined...

    Authors: Carolina Graña Possamai, Philippe Ravaud, Lina Ghosn and Viet-Thi Tran

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:310

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Wide implementation of mammography screening has resulted in increased numbers of women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in situ. We aimed to determine the risk of invasive breast cancer in relatives of patient...

    Authors: Trasias Mukama, Mahdi Fallah, Hermann Brenner, Xing Xu, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist and Elham Kharazmi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:295

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother’s psychological disorder and infant’s developmental delay is unknown.

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Lian Chen, Tianchen Wu, Huifeng Shi, Qin Li, Hai Jiang, Danni Zheng, Xiaoli Wang, Yuan Wei, Yangyu Zhao and Jie Qiao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:347

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are pivotal to detecting current coronavirus d...

    Authors: Sue Mallett, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Stuart A. Taylor, Naomi S. Sakai, Kile Green, Jana Suklan, Chris Hyde, Bethany Shinkins, Zhivko Zhelev, Jaime Peters, Philip J. Turner, Nia W. Roberts, Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Robert Wolff, Penny Whiting…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:346

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The STREAM trial demonstrated that a 9–11-month “short” regimen had non-inferior efficacy and comparable safety to a 20+ month “long” regimen for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Imbalance i...

    Authors: P. P. J. Phillips, A. Van Deun, S. Ahmed, R. L. Goodall, S. K. Meredith, F. Conradie, C-Y Chiang, I. D. Rusen and A. J. Nunn

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:314

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon β (IFNβ) develop ADA,...

    Authors: Till F. M. Andlauer, Jenny Link, Dorothea Martin, Malin Ryner, Christina Hermanrud, Verena Grummel, Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Lilian Aly, Christiane Gasperi, Benjamin Knier, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen, Finn Sellebjerg, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:298

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. At the end of life, formal care costs are high. Informal care (IC) costs, and their effects on outcomes, are not known. This study aimed to determine the IC costs for older adults in the last 3 months of life,...

    Authors: Irene J. Higginson, Deokhee Yi, Bridget M. Johnston, Karen Ryan, Regina McQuillan, Lucy Selman, Stephen Z. Pantilat, Barbara A. Daveson, R. Sean Morrison and Charles Normand

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:344

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  49. Epidemics of infectious disease occur frequently in low-income and humanitarian settings and pose a serious threat to populations. However, relatively little is known about responses to these epidemics. Robust...

    Authors: Abdihamid Warsame, Jillian Murray, Amy Gimma and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:315

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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