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  1. Content type: Commentary

    Improving clinical outcomes and quality of care in diseases such as sepsis, which are heterogeneous in their presenting signs and symptoms, is a challenge. One approach is to utilise the Functional Analysis Re...

    Authors: Damian Roland

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:213

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:174

  2. Content type: Guideline

    Adequate reporting of adaptive designs (ADs) maximises their potential benefits in the conduct of clinical trials. Transparent reporting can help address some obstacles and concerns relating to the use of ADs....

    Authors: Munyaradzi Dimairo, Elizabeth Coates, Philip Pallmann, Susan Todd, Steven A. Julious, Thomas Jaki, James Wason, Adrian P. Mander, Christopher J. Weir, Franz Koenig, Marc K. Walton, Katie Biggs, Jon Nicholl, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Michael A. Proschan, John A. Scott…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:210

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  3. Content type: Research article

    It is presumed that pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of prenatal common mental disorders can mitigate associated adverse effects in offspring, yet strong evidence for the prophylactic benefits...

    Authors: Marlies E. Brouwer, Alishia D. Williams, Sam E. van Grinsven, Pim Cuijpers, Mijke P. Lambregtse-van den Berg, Huibert Burger and Claudi L. H. Bockting

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:208

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Concerns have been raised that observing other people using e-cigarettes may undermine motivation to quit by renormalising smoking. This study aimed to explore associations between regular exposure to other pe...

    Authors: Sarah E. Jackson, Emma Beard, Susan Michie, Lion Shahab, Tobias Raupach, Robert West and Jamie Brown

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:206

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    Spatial epidemiology is a rapidly advancing field, pushing our abilities to measure, monitor and map pathogens at increasingly finer spatiotemporal scales. However, these scales often do not align with the abi...

    Authors: Andrew J. Tatem

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:209

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  6. Content type: Research article

    In 2005, the FDA cautioned that exposure to paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of cardiac malformations. Since then, the ...

    Authors: Shan-Yan Gao, Qi-Jun Wu, Ce Sun, Tie-Ning Zhang, Zi-Qi Shen, Cai-Xia Liu, Ting-Ting Gong, Xin Xu, Chao Ji, Dong-Hui Huang, Qing Chang and Yu-Hong Zhao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:205

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Environment and diet in early life can affect development and health throughout the life course. Metabolic phenotyping of urine and serum represents a complementary systems-wide approach to elucidate environme...

    Authors: Chung-Ho E. Lau, Alexandros P. Siskos, Léa Maitre, Oliver Robinson, Toby J. Athersuch, Elizabeth J. Want, Jose Urquiza, Maribel Casas, Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Rosemary R. C. McEachan, Rafaq Azad, Line S. Haug, Helle M. Meltzer, Sandra Andrusaityte, Inga Petraviciene…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:202

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Several quinoline and structurally related antimalarial drugs are associated with cardiovascular side effects, particularly hypotension and electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation. A prolonged QT interva...

    Authors: Ilsa L. Haeusler, Xin Hui S. Chan, Philippe J. Guérin and Nicholas J. White

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:200

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is an established risk factor for large size at birth, but its influence on intrauterine fetal growth in different ethnic populations is less well understood. Here, we exami...

    Authors: Judith S. Brand, Jane West, Derek Tuffnell, Philippa K. Bird, John Wright, Kate Tilling and Debbie A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:203

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-p...

    Authors: Susana Santos, Iris Eekhout, Ellis Voerman, Romy Gaillard, Henrique Barros, Marie-Aline Charles, Leda Chatzi, Cécile Chevrier, George P. Chrousos, Eva Corpeleijn, Nathalie Costet, Sarah Crozier, Myriam Doyon, Merete Eggesbø, Maria Pia Fantini, Sara Farchi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:201

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Factors driving inter-individual differences in immune responses upon different types of prenatal malaria exposure (PME) and subsequent risk of malaria in infancy remain poorly understood. In this study, we ex...

    Authors: Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Gemma Moncunill, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Héctor Sanz, Hermann Sorgho, Ruth Aguilar, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, M. Athanase Somé, Susana Scott, Innocent Valéa, Petra F. Mens, Henk D. F. H. Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Carlota Dobaño and Anna Rosanas-Urgell

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:198

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:212

  12. Content type: Research article

    Childhood malnutrition remains highly prevalent in low-income countries, and a 40% reduction in under-5 year stunting is WHO’s top Global Target 2025. Disappointingly, meta-analyses of intensive nutrition inte...

    Authors: Mayya Husseini, Momodou K Darboe, Sophie E Moore, Helen M Nabwera and Andrew M Prentice

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:199

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The RTS,S/AS01E vaccine provides partial protection against malaria in African children, but immune responses have only been partially characterized and do not reliably predict protective efficacy. We aimed to...

    Authors: Itziar Ubillos, Aintzane Ayestaran, Augusto J Nhabomba, David Dosoo, Marta Vidal, Alfons Jiménez, Chenjerai Jairoce, Hèctor Sanz, Ruth Aguilar, Nana Aba Williams, Núria Díez-Padrisa, Maximilian Mpina, Hermann Sorgho, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Simon Kariuki, Benjamin Mordmüller…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:197

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The host, microbial, and environmental factors that contribute to variation in tuberculosis (TB) disease are incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that one driver of geographic variation in T...

    Authors: Kirsten E Wiens, Lauren P Woyczynski, Jorge R Ledesma, Jennifer M Ross, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas, Amador Goodridge, Irfan Ullah, Barun Mathema, Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya, Molly H Biehl, Sarah E Ray, Natalia V Bhattacharjee, Nathaniel J Henry, Robert C Reiner Jr, Hmwe H Kyu, Christopher J L Murray…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:196

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Despite substantial improvement in the control of malaria and decreased prevalence of malnutrition over the past two decades, both conditions remain heavy burdens that cause hundreds of thousands of deaths in ...

    Authors: D Das, R F Grais, E A Okiro, K Stepniewska, R Mansoor, S van der Kam, D J Terlouw, J Tarning, K I Barnes and P J Guerin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:186

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Nutritional status and individual nutrients have been associated with frailty in older adults. The extent to which these associations hold in younger people, by type of malnutrition or grades of frailty, is un...

    Authors: Kulapong Jayanama, Olga Theou, Joanna M Blodgett, Leah Cahill and Kenneth Rockwood

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:188

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Adult height is associated with risk of several diseases, but the breadth of such associations and whether these associations are primary or due to confounding are unclear. We examined the association of adult...

    Authors: Florence Y. Lai, Mintu Nath, Stephen E. Hamby, John R. Thompson, Christopher P. Nelson and Nilesh J. Samani

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:187

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Whether physical activity can reduce cognitive frailty—a relatively new “compound” phenotype proposed in 2013—and whether the effect of physical activity differs based on levels of inflammation are unknown. Th...

    Authors: Zuyun Liu, Fang-Chi Hsu, Andrea Trombetti, Abby C. King, Christine K. Liu, Todd M. Manini, Roger A. Fielding, Marco Pahor, Anne B. Newman, Stephen Kritchevsky and Thomas M. Gill

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:185

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Maternal lifestyle factors, including smoking and increased body weight, increase risks of adult diseases such as metabolic syndrome and infertility. The fetal thyroid gland is essential for the control of fet...

    Authors: Panagiotis Filis, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch, Pierre Ayotte, Nalin Nagrath, Ugo Soffientini, Thomas Klonisch, Peter O’Shaughnessy and Paul A. Fowler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:194

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Community health workers (CHWs) can provide diagnosis and treatment of malaria in remote rural areas and are therefore key to the elimination of malaria. However, as incidence declines, uptake of their service...

    Authors: Alistair R. D. McLean, Hla Phyo Wai, Aung Myat Thu, Zay Soe Khant, Chanida Indrasuta, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Thar Tun Kyaw, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen Dondorp, Nicholas J. White and Frank M. Smithuis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:183

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Long waiting times are associated with public community outpatient health services. This trial aimed to determine if a new model of care based on evidence-based strategies that improved patient flow in two sma...

    Authors: Katherine E. Harding, Sandra G. Leggat, Jennifer J. Watts, Bridie Kent, Luke Prendergast, Michelle Kotis, Mary O’Reilly, Leila Karimi, Annie K. Lewis, David A. Snowdon and Nicholas F. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:182

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  22. Content type: Research article

    A sequence of annual measles epidemics has been observed from January 2013 to April 2017 in the South West Shoa Zone of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the burden of disease in the affected...

    Authors: Piero Poletti, Stefano Parlamento, Tafarraa Fayyisaa, Rattaa Feyyiss, Marta Lusiani, Ademe Tsegaye, Giulia Segafredo, Giovanni Putoto, Fabio Manenti and Stefano Merler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:177

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  23. Content type: Opinion

    Recent global progress in scaling up malaria control interventions has revived the goal of complete elimination in many countries. Decreasing transmission intensity generally leads to increasingly patchy spati...

    Authors: Amy Wesolowski, Aimee R Taylor, Hsiao-Han Chang, Robert Verity, Sofonias Tessema, Jeffrey A Bailey, T Alex Perkins, Daniel E Neafsey, Bryan Greenhouse and Caroline O Buckee

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:190

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Local mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in two counties in the contiguous United States (US), prompting the issuance of travel, prevention, and testing guidance across the contigu...

    Authors: Kaiyuan Sun, Qian Zhang, Ana Pastore-Piontti, Matteo Chinazzi, Dina Mistry, Natalie E Dean, Diana Patricia Rojas, Stefano Merler, Piero Poletti, Luca Rossi, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M Longini Jr and Alessandro Vespignani

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:195

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission often occurs within a household or community, leading to heterogeneous spatial patterns. However, apparent spatial clustering of TB could reflect ongoing transmission or co-locat...

    Authors: Debebe Shaweno, Malancha Karmakar, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Romain Ragonnet, Archie CA Clements, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm and Emma S. McBryde

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:193

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  26. Content type: Research article

    In the REMoxTB study of 4-month treatment-shortening regimens containing moxifloxacin compared to the standard 6-month regimen for tuberculosis, the proportion of unfavourable outcomes for women was similar in...

    Authors: M. E. Murphy, G. H. Wills, S. Murthy, C. Louw, A. L. C. Bateson, R. D. Hunt, T. D. McHugh, A. J. Nunn, S. K. Meredith, C. M. Mendel, M. Spigelman, A. M. Crook and S. H. Gillespie

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:189

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  27. Content type: Research article

    We aimed to determine the best study designs for assessing interventions to improve the peer review process according to experts’ opinions. Furthermore, for interventions previously evaluated, we determined wh...

    Authors: Amytis Heim, Philippe Ravaud, Gabriel Baron and Isabelle Boutron

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:191

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Clinical decision rules (CDRs) aid in the management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) has published practical, evidence-based guidelines for...

    Authors: Johan Undén, Stuart R. Dalziel, Meredith L. Borland, Natalie Phillips, Amit Kochar, Mark D. Lyttle, Silvia Bressan, John A. Cheek, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Stephen Hearps, Ed Oakley, Sarah Dalton, Yuri Gilhotra and Franz E. Babl

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:176

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Ensuring effective identification and management of sepsis is a healthcare priority in many countries. Recommendations for sepsis management in primary care have been produced, but in complex healthcare system...

    Authors: Duncan McNab, John Freestone, Chris Black, Andrew Carson-Stevens and Paul Bowie

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:174

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:213

  30. Content type: Research article

    The focus of this study is to identify particular microRNA (miRNA) signatures in exosomes derived from plasma of 435 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative (TN) subtypes o...

    Authors: Ines Stevic, Volkmar Müller, Karsten Weber, Peter A. Fasching, Thomas Karn, Frederic Marmé, Christian Schem, Elmar Stickeler, Carsten Denkert, Marion van Mackelenbergh, Christoph Salat, Andreas Schneeweiss, Klaus Pantel, Sibylle Loibl, Michael Untch and Heidi Schwarzenbach

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:179

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  31. Content type: Debate

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have dramatically changed the landscape of hepatitis C treatment and prevention. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health t...

    Authors: Caitlin H. Douglass, Alisa Pedrana, Jeffrey V. Lazarus, Ellen F. M. ‘t Hoen, Radi Hammad, Ricardo Baptista Leite, Andrew Hill and Margaret Hellard

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:175

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The continuing morbidity and mortality associated with infection with malaria parasites highlights the urgent need for a vaccine. The efficacy of sub-unit vaccines tested in clinical trials in malaria-endemic ...

    Authors: Danielle I. Stanisic, James Fink, Johanna Mayer, Sarah Coghill, Letitia Gore, Xue Q. Liu, Ibrahim El-Deeb, Ingrid B. Rodriguez, Jessica Powell, Nicole M. Willemsen, Sai Lata De, Mei-Fong Ho, Stephen L. Hoffman, John Gerrard and Michael F. Good

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:184

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:204

  33. Content type: Commentary

    Emergency hospital admissions are common, with several interventions having been developed to reduce their rates. Bobrovitz et al. summarized the available body of evidence regarding pharmacologic therapies ai...

    Authors: Michael R. Gionfriddo

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:169

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:115

  34. Content type: Research article

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by multiple comorbidities, which are associated with an increased risk of exacerbation, a poor health-related quality of life, and high mortali...

    Authors: Hyun Lee, Sun Hye Shin, Seonhye Gu, Di Zhao, Danbee Kang, Yeong Rae Joi, Gee Young Suh, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho and Hye Yun Park

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:178

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region in 2013, with serious implications for population health in the region. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared the ZIKV outbre...

    Authors: Kathleen M. O’Reilly, Rachel Lowe, W. John Edmunds, Philippe Mayaud, Adam Kucharski, Rosalind M. Eggo, Sebastian Funk, Deepit Bhatia, Kamran Khan, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Laura C. Rodrigues, Patricia Brasil, Eduardo Massad, Thomas Jaenisch, Simon Cauchemez…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:180

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Humanity has become largely dependent on artemisinin derivatives for both the treatment and control of malaria, with few alternatives available. A Plasmodium falciparum phenotype with delayed parasite clearance d...

    Authors: Rajeev K. Tyagi, Patrick J. Gleeson, Ludovic Arnold, Rachida Tahar, Eric Prieur, Laurent Decosterd, Jean-Louis Pérignon, Piero Olliaro and Pierre Druilhe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:181

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Refugees are generally considered a vulnerable population, with refugee children (newborn and young children) being particularly so. Access to healthcare for this population remains a challenge. The main purpo...

    Authors: Anna Meyer-Weitz, Kwaku Oppong Asante and Bukenge J. Lukobeka

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:163

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Social and cultural disparities in infectious disease burden are caused by systematic differences between communities. Some differences have a direct and proportional impact on disease burden, such as health-s...

    Authors: James D. Munday, Albert Jan van Hoek, W. John Edmunds and Katherine E. Atkins

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:162

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Chronic diseases and musculoskeletal conditions have a significant global burden and frequently co-occur. Musculoskeletal conditions may contribute to the development of chronic disease; however, this has not ...

    Authors: Amanda Williams, Steven J. Kamper, John H. Wiggers, Kate M. O’Brien, Hopin Lee, Luke Wolfenden, Sze Lin Yoong, Emma Robson, James H. McAuley, Jan Hartvigsen and Christopher M. Williams

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:167

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Various individual biomarkers of inflammation and micronutrient status, often correlated with each other, are associated with adverse treatment outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. T...

    Authors: Rupak Shivakoti, Nikhil Gupte, Srikanth Tripathy, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Cecilia Kanyama, Sima Berendes, Sandra W. Cardoso, Breno R. Santos, Alberto La Rosa, Noluthando Mwelase, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Cynthia Riviere, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Robert C. Bollinger, Ashwin Balagopal…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:161

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) are major contributors to infant mortality and chronic childhood morbidity. Understanding factors that contribute to or protect against these adverse birth outcom...

    Authors: Freya J. I. Fowkes, Kerryn A. Moore, D. Herbert Opi, Julie A. Simpson, Freya Langham, Danielle I. Stanisic, Alice Ura, Christopher L. King, Peter M. Siba, Ivo Mueller, Stephen J. Rogerson and James G. Beeson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:156

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