Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Some medical conditions associated with episodic rage and violence

From: The physician's unique role in preventing violence: a neglected opportunity?

Psychiatric Organic brain syndrome [35], Korsakoff's psychosis [86], bipolar disorder [87], psychoactive substance intoxication and withdrawal [88], psychotic disorders [89], premenstrual dysphoric disorder [90], post-traumatic stress disorder [22], panic disorder [4], generalized anxiety disorder [91], antisocial personality disorder [92], borderline personality disorder [92], personality disorders [92], attention deficit disorder [93], major depressive disorder [94].
Neurological Brain tumors/lesions [95], head injury [27], Parkinson's disorder [96], seizure disorder [26], multiple sclerosis [97], normal pressure hydrocephalus [98], autism [34], Wilson's disease [29], Huntington's disease [99], dementia [100], stroke [101].
Nutritional deficiency Omega-3 fatty acids [56], folate [29], cobalamin (B12) [102, 103], thiamine [104, 105], iron [106], lithium [107], magnesium [53, 108], tryptophan [109], pyridoxine [29].
Medical and toxic Alcohol [21, 110], cocaine [21, 111], manganese [29, 112], organophosphorous compounds [29, 113], phencyclidine (PCP) [114], lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) [101, 115], heroin [101, 116], amphetamines [117], benzodiazepines [117, 118], prescription drugs [117, 119], anabolic steroids [117].
Metabolic/Endocrine Hypoglycaemia [101, 117, 120], hepatic encephalopathy [121], fluid and electrolyte imbalances [119], disorders of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands [29, 122], hypoxia [101].
Miscellaneous Intermittent Porphoria [123], chronic pain [124], sleep disorders [29, 125], anemia [126], vasculitis [119], meningitis/encephalitis [101], syphilis [102].