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Table 2 Mechanistic differences between GLP-1 agonist exenatide and DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin [31].

From: Comparison of efficacy between incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus

   Sitagliptin Exenatide Significance
Change in FPG (mmol/l)   1.04+/- 0.2 0.83+/-0.2 P = 0.3234
Change in PPG (mmol/l)   2.0 +/-0.3 6.26+/-0.3 P <0.0001*
Insulinogenic index   Yes Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P = 0.0239*
Acute Insulin secretion   Yes Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P = 0.0017*
Reduction in post -prandial glucagon   Yes Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P = 0.0011*
Reduction in gastric emptying   none Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P <0.0001*
Six point SMBG excursions Post breakfast   Yes- significantly less than sitagliptin P = 0.0016*
  Post lunch   Similar to Sitagliptin P = 0.07849
  Post dinner   Yes- significantly less than sitagliptin P = 0.038*
Reduction in body weight (kg)   0.3+/-0.2 0.8+/-0.2 P = 0.0056*
Decrement in calorie intake   none Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P = 0.0227*
Reduction in post-prandial triglyceride levels   yes Yes- significantly more than sitagliptin P = 0.018*
Nausea   12% 34%  
Vomiting   3% 24%  
  1. *Statistically significant. DDP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; PPG, postprandial glucose; SMBG, self-monitoring blood glucose