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Table 2 Potential areas for clinical application of genetic discoveries in atrial fibrillation (AF) management

From: Personalized medicine and atrial fibrillation: will it ever happen?

Area Example Potential utility Limitations
Risk prediction Predict new-onset AF or AF-related morbidity (stroke, heart failure, mortality risk) Benchmark for clinical trial development Absence of known preventive strategies for AF
   Facilitate AF and clinical outcome prevention Cohorts for genetic risk score derivation predominantly of European ancestry
    Small relative risks of discovered variants
    Complexity of incorporation into clinical practice
    Cost
    Untested
  Predict AF progression Early antiarrhythmic or ablation intervention Unclear relations between AF progression and morbidity and mortality
    Untested
Patient management Pharmacogenetics Maximize efficacy, minimize adverse effects Development of novel agents with wide therapeutic margins
   Thromboembolism prophylaxis Ablation and mechanical interventions as alternatives
   Antiarrhythmic therapy Complexity of incorporation into clinical practice
    Cost
    Untested