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Table 3 Effect of exercise therapy on pain.

From: Exercise therapy for bone and muscle health: an overview of systematic reviews

Diagnosis [Reference] Intervention Control Included trials/patients Treatment effect
Fibromyalgia [14] Aerobic training Various (wait list, control, no exercise, treatment as usual) 3/183 SMDa 0.65 (95% CI -0.09 to 1.39)
  Strength training Control (not specified) 1/21 SMD 3.00 (95% CI 1.68 to 4.32)
Low back pain [22] Exercise (many different types) No treatment 5/NRb WMDc -9.27 on a 100-point scale (95% CI-17.00 to -1.55)
   Minimal care 11/NR WMD -4.83 on a 100-point scale (95% CI -9.36 to -0.30)
Neck pain [21] General strength and conditioning exercises Minimal or no intervention 3/76 WMD -12.00 on a 100-point scale (95% CI -22.00 to -2.00)
Shoulder pain [20] Graded exercise therapy, progressive resistance, active range of motion Active or no intervention 3/273 SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.48 to -0.12)
Osteoporosis [15] Static, dynamic, or non-weight-bearing exercise Various NR NR
Osteoarthritis knee [16] Any land-based therapeutic exercise regimens Various (not specified) 32/3616 SMD -0.40 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.30)
Osteoarthritis hip [17] Any land-based therapeutic exercise regimens Various (not specified) 5/204 SMD -0.33 (95% CI -0.84 to 0.17)
Rheumatoid arthritis [18] Short-term aerobic capacity and muscle-strength training Various (not specified) 1/50 SMD -0.53 (95% CI -1.09 to 0.04)
  Short-term aerobic capacity training only Various (not specified) 1/56 SMD -0.27 (95% CI -0.79 to 0.26)
Ankylosing spondylitis [19] Supervised home exercise program No intervention 1/155 SMD 0.49 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.81)
  1. a Standardized mean difference.
  2. bNot reported.
  3. cWeighted mean difference.