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Table 4 Effect of exercise therapy on physical functioning.

From: Exercise therapy for bone and muscle health: an overview of systematic reviews

Diagnosis [Reference] Intervention Control No trials/patients in analyses Treatment effect
Fibromyalgia [14] Aerobic training Various (wait list, control, no exercise, treatment as usual) 4/253 SMDa 0.66 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.92)
  Strength training Control (not specified) 2/47 SMD 0.52 (95% CI -0.07 to 1.10)
Low back pain [22] Exercise (many different types) No treatment 9/NRb WMDc -3.31 on a 100-point scale (95% CI -4.83 to -1.79)
   Minimal care 14/NR WMD -6.41 on a 100-point scale (95% CI -9.76 to -3.05)
Neck pain [21] General strength and conditioning exercises Minimal or no intervention 2/141 WMD 1.00 on a 100-point scale (95% CI -3.00 to 5.00)
Shoulder pain [20] Graded exercise therapy, progressive resistance, active range of motion Active or no intervention 4/358 SMD 0.15 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.29)
Osteoporosis [15] Static, dynamic, or non-weight-bearing exercise Various NR NR
Osteoarthritis knee [16] Any land-based therapeutic exercise regimen Various (not specified) 32/3719 SMD -0.37 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.25)
Osteoarthritis hip [17] Any land-based therapeutic exercise regimen Various (not specified) 5/187 SMD -0.10 (95% CI -0.51 to 0.32)
Rheumatoid arthritis [18] Short-term aerobic capacity and muscle-strength training Various (not specified) 2/74 SMD -0.40 (95% CI -0.86 to 0.06)
  Short-term aerobic capacity training only Various (not specified) 2/66 SMD -0.03 (95% CI -0.46 to 0.51)
Ankylosing spondylitis [19] Supervised home exercise program No intervention 1/155 SMD 0.12 (95% CI -0.20 to 0.43)
  1. a Standardized mean difference.
  2. b Not reported.
  3. c Weighted mean difference.