Structural features of eyes with AMD. (A) Schematic of human eye with the macular region indicated by the bracket. (B-E) Histological sections of eyes from individuals with normal retina (B); drusen (asterisks) beneath the RPE, a sign of early stage AMD (C); geographic atrophy with loss of photoreceptor cells (D); and choroidal neovascularization, with pathologic angiogenesis beneath the retina and RPE (E). The paper by Newman and colleagues explored gene expression differences in neural retina and the RPE/choroid layers based on disease state and region in an unprecedented number of eyes. asterisks, drusen; arrowheads in E, pathologic blood vessels. AMD, age-related macular degeneration; CH, choroid; CNVM, choroidal neovascular membrane; NR, neural retina; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium.