Hepatic differentiation of hPMSCs. (A) Immunocytochemistry analysis of hepatically differentiated or undifferentiated hPMSCs. (A, D, G, and J) Staining for the hepatic markers ALB, AFP, CK18, and CK19; a large number of cells had a light-brown coloration. (B, E, H, and K) hPMSCs cultured in growth medium did not display positive immunocytochemical staining. (C, F, I, and L) Efficiency of immunocytochemical staining was tested on cultured hepatocytes as positive controls (10×). (B) RT-PCR analysis of hepatic-specific gene expression in hepatically differentiated or undifferentiated hPMSCs. Lane 1, hPMSCs that had undergone hepatic differentiation; lane 2, hPMSCs cultured in growth medium; and lane 3, human liver tissue as a positive control.