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Table 4 Overview of selected studies on carbohydrate antigen 125 levels during normal pregnancy.

From: Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review

  Author/year of publication Study design Laboratory technique Number of patients Cut-off value (U/mL) Trimester 1 Trimester 2 Trimester 3 Conclusion
1 Niloff 1984 [12] cross-sectional 125I-labeled OC125 N = 101 <65 >65 in 16% < 65 <65 T1: 16% above cut-off value
2 Haga 1986 [13] cross-sectional Centocore Inc., Malvern, PA, USA T1 n = 29; T2 n = 21; T3 n = 21 <35 85 ± 101 (mean ± SD) 18 to 550 (range) 20 ± 10 10 to 54 25 ± 27 <8 to 140 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
3 Jacobs 1988 [14] cross-sectional Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA T1 n = 11; T2 n = 7; T3 n = 8 <35 53.6 (median) 15.6 to 268.3 (range) 18.5 12.0 to 25.1 19.2 16.8 to 43.8 35% above cut-off value
4 Kobayashi 1989 [15] both cross-sectional and longitudinal ORIS Industry, Censaclay, France n = 122 <35 71.7 ± 71.1 (mean ± SD) 19.1 ± 7.0 28.1 ±14.1 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
5 Touitou 1989 [16] cross-sectional IRMA, CIS-Bio International, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France T1 n = 32; T2 n = 32; T3 n= 36 <35 23.7± 13.9 (mean ± SD) 14.8 ± 8.0 22.1 ± 17.1 8% above cut-off value
6 Kenemans 1992 [17] cross-sectional Enzymun CA 125 (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) T1 n = 26; T2 n = 20; T3 n = 145 <35 24.4 ± 13.3 (mean ± SD) 54.6 (maximum range) 38.1 ± 47.4 166.6 74.7 ± 273.3 2,419.7 T1: 19% above cut-off value T2: 15% above cut-off value T3: 20% above cut-off value
7 Schlageter 1998 [7] longitudinal ELSA-CA 125 (CIS Bio International-Bio International, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France n = 12 <40 18.7 ± 14.0 (mean ± SD) 6.1 to 41.5 (range) 19.9 ± 12.5 6.5 to 54.3 22.3 ± 13.1 6.1 to 51.3 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
8 Spitzer 1998 [18] longitudinal Centocore Inc., Diagnostic division, Malvern, PA, USA n = 20 <35 33.1 (median) 3.7 to 251.2 (range) <35 <35 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
9 Bon 2001 [10] cross-sectional Enzymun-Test CA 125 (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) T1 n = 127; T2 n = 192; T3 n = 47 Not stated 23 (median) 4 to 108 (range) 14 1 to 73 21 8 to 144 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
10 Ercan 2012 [11] longitudinal Modular Analytics E 170 Module (Roche diagnostics, Basel, Switserland n = 30 <35 19.0 (median) 4.9 to 61 (range) 15.6 4.7 to 32.1 19.6 9.8 to 41.2 4.4% above cut-off value
  1. CA, carbohydrate antigen; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IRMA, immunoradiometric assay; SD: standard deviation; T, trimester;