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Table 4 Overview of selected studies on carbohydrate antigen 125 levels during normal pregnancy.

From: Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review

  Author/year of publication Study design Laboratory technique Number of patients Cut-off value
(U/mL)
Trimester 1 Trimester 2 Trimester 3 Conclusion
1 Niloff 1984 [12] cross-sectional 125I-labeled OC125 N = 101 <65 >65 in 16% < 65 <65 T1: 16% above cut-off value
2 Haga 1986 [13] cross-sectional Centocore Inc., Malvern, PA, USA T1 n = 29; T2 n = 21; T3 n = 21 <35 85 ± 101
(mean ± SD)
18 to 550 (range)
20 ± 10
10 to 54
25 ± 27
<8 to 140
Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
3 Jacobs 1988 [14] cross-sectional Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA T1 n = 11; T2 n = 7; T3 n = 8 <35 53.6 (median)
15.6 to 268.3 (range)
18.5
12.0 to 25.1
19.2
16.8 to 43.8
35% above cut-off value
4 Kobayashi 1989 [15] both cross-sectional and longitudinal ORIS Industry, Censaclay, France n = 122 <35 71.7 ± 71.1
(mean ± SD)
19.1 ± 7.0 28.1 ±14.1 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
5 Touitou 1989 [16] cross-sectional IRMA, CIS-Bio International, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France T1 n = 32; T2 n = 32; T3 n= 36 <35 23.7± 13.9
(mean ± SD)
14.8 ± 8.0 22.1 ± 17.1 8% above cut-off value
6 Kenemans 1992 [17] cross-sectional Enzymun CA 125 (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) T1 n = 26; T2 n = 20; T3 n = 145 <35 24.4 ± 13.3
(mean ± SD)
54.6 (maximum range)
38.1 ± 47.4
166.6
74.7 ± 273.3
2,419.7
T1: 19% above cut-off value
T2: 15% above cut-off value
T3: 20% above cut-off value
7 Schlageter 1998 [7] longitudinal ELSA-CA 125 (CIS Bio International-Bio International, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France n = 12 <40 18.7 ± 14.0
(mean ± SD)
6.1 to 41.5 (range)
19.9 ± 12.5
6.5 to 54.3
22.3 ± 13.1
6.1 to 51.3
Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
8 Spitzer 1998 [18] longitudinal Centocore Inc., Diagnostic division, Malvern, PA, USA n = 20 <35 33.1 (median)
3.7 to 251.2
(range)
<35 <35 Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
9 Bon 2001 [10] cross-sectional Enzymun-Test CA 125 (Boehringer, Mannheim, Germany) T1 n = 127; T2 n = 192; T3 n = 47 Not stated 23 (median)
4 to 108 (range)
14
1 to 73
21
8 to 144
Raised above cut-off value, percentage not stated
10 Ercan 2012 [11] longitudinal Modular Analytics E 170 Module (Roche diagnostics, Basel, Switserland n = 30 <35 19.0 (median)
4.9 to 61 (range)
15.6
4.7 to 32.1
19.6
9.8 to 41.2
4.4% above cut-off value
  1. CA, carbohydrate antigen; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IRMA, immunoradiometric assay; SD: standard deviation; T, trimester;