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Table 1 Effects of GLP-1 analogs with relevance for schizophrenia

From: Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits

Unresolved challenges in schizophrenia Effect of GLP-1 analog treatment Current level of evidence Reference(s)
Endocrinological
issues
   
Weight gain (non-diabetes) Weight loss
Improved glycaemic control (1% reduction in HbA1c)
Reduction in plasma levels of cholesterol and liver enzymes
Improved beta cell function
Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Prospective RCT* (2 years)
and systematic review with meta-analyses of RCTs*
[35, 36]
Diabetes (dysmetabolism) Weight loss
Improved glycaemic control (1% reduction in HbA1c)
Reduction in plasma levels of cholesterol and liver enzymes
Improved beta cell function
Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Cochrane systematic review and systematic review with meta-analyses of RCTs* [35, 72]
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Reduction of hepatic lipid deposition Preclinical studies [37, 38]
Neuropsychiatric issues    
Cognition Improvement of memory deficits Preclinical studies [41, 43]
Extrapyramidal side effects Reduction of dyskinesia and regeneration of dopaminergic neurons Preclinical studies [45, 46]
Neuroprotection Increased neurogenesis and modulation of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus Preclinical studies [43, 44]
Quality of life Improved well-being and reduced Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale after six months compared to diabetic patients treated with insulin (the improvement was found to be independent of changes in body mass index) Prospective, observational study [73]
  1. *RCT: Randomized clinical trial.