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Table 5 AQ and RRT results for lifetime prevalence rates of prescription or illicit drug use for cognitive enhancement (CE) or mood enhancement (ME)

From: Use of illicit and prescription drugs for cognitive or mood enhancement among surgeons

  Study technique Age of first use of enhancement
Substance use for CE/ ME: AQ RRT (mean ± SD)
  (n= 957) (n= 1,102) (according to AQ)
Any prescription or illicit drug 8.9% (n = 85) 19.9% 24.0 ± 6.2
Methylphenidate (MPH) 2.5% (n = 24)   22.0 ± 2.8
Amphetamine pills 2.6% (n = 25)   22.6 ± 3.6
Illicit amphetamines 0.9% (n = 9)   23.0 ± 2.0
Modafinil 2.2% (n = 21)   35.8 ± 7.2
Ecstasy 0.6% (n = 6)   20.2 ± 3.0
Cocaine 1.6% (n = 15)   22.7 ± 3.0
Ephedrin 1.2% (n = 11)   19.3 ± 6.0
Antidementive drugs 0.3% (n = 3)   25.0 ± 2.8
Atomoxetin 0.6% (n = 6)   26.0 ± 0.0
Any antidepressant 2.4 (n = 23) 15.1% 38.7 ± 10.7
  1. Lifetime prevalence rates of prescription or illicit drug use for CE and antidepressants for ME among 1,143 surgeons by anonymous questionnaire (AQ) compared to the Randomized Response Technique (RRT). Means are given with standard deviation (SD).