Hierarchical clustering of the 157 patients based on individual patient biomarker profiles. Hierarchical clustering of the 157 patients, on the basis of individual patient biomarker profiles, identified five distinct patient clusters as illustrated in this dendrogram. These clusters have (from top to bottom) 57 (28) (blue), 13 (8) (red), 49 (18) (green), 15 (11) (purple) and 23 (15) (gold) patients in each cluster. The number in brackets is the number of patients with urothelial cancer (UC) in the corresponding cluster. UC and control patients were evenly distributed across the five patient clusters. Pclass = 1 corresponds to control patients, that is, hematuric patients who were negative for investigations for UC. Pclass = 2 corresponds to UC patients.