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Table 4 Median biomarker levels in patient clusters.

From: Collectives of diagnostic biomarkers identify high-risk subpopulations of hematuria patients: exploiting heterogeneity in large-scale biomarker data

Biomarker (units) Median (inter quartile range) in patient clusters
  blue red green purple gold
BLACK CLUSTER
CRP (ng/ml) 1.05 (0.74 to 1.33) 0.86 (<0.67 to 0.91) 1.06 (0.84 to 1.25) <0.67 (<0.67 to 0.83) 0.75 (<0.67 to 0.90)
TNFα (pg/ml) 10.52 (7.78 to 13.25) 9.07 (7.36 to 9.79) 9.54 (7.46 to 11.78) 11.66 (8.95 to 15.48) 10.20 (8.31 to 12.820)
GREEN CLUSTER
EGF (pg/ml) 7,056 (4,965 to 13,752) 3,633 (1,874 to 5,992) 6,477 (2,784 to 10,943) 3,722.33 (3,058 to 4,956) 13,826 ( 9,488 to 20,332)
sTNFR1(pg/ml) 0.67 (0.41 to 1.04) 0.75 (0.47 to 1.05) 0.57 (0.24 to 1.61) 0.74 (0.45 to 1.06) 1.60 (0.97 to 2.54)
PURPLE CLUSTER
CK18 (ng/ml) 2.30 (0.71 to 3.59) 1.22 (0.42 to 2.78) 2.03 (0.75 to 4.33) 8.97 (2.88 to 21.43) 6.43 (2.67 to 10.28)
MCP-1 (pg/ml) 112 (38 to 212) 73 (41 to 141) 67 (28 to 113) 269 (118 to 871) 237 (106 to 550)
NSE (ng/ml) IQR below LOD 0.28 (<0.26 to 0.92) IQR below LOD 1.72 (<0.26 to 18.32) 0.51 (< 0.26 to 2.37)
MMP-9 (ng/ml) IQR below LOD IQR below LOD IQR below LOD 15.15 (6.57 to 50.81) IQR below LOD
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.37 (<1.20 to 3.60) 12.93 (3.27 to 26.67) <1.20(<1.20 to 2.50) 194.33 (16.43 to 577.33) 40.80 (4.80 to 196.67)
vWF (IU/ml) purple 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.01 (0.01 to 0.01) 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) 0.01 (0.01 to 0.03)
GOLD CLUSTER
Protein (mg/ml) 0.07 (0.05 to 0.11) 0.44(0.29 to 0.60) 0.08 (0.05 to 0.12) 0.59 (0.25 to 0.93) 0.30 (0.09 to 1.00)
NGAL (ng/ml) 123 (92 to 212) 192 (146 to 297) 110 (74 to 148) 1,379 (602 to 1922) 464 (108 to 1368)
D-dimer (ng/ml) <2.10 (<2.10 to 5.02) 47.01 (11.80 to 138.27) <2.10 (<2.10 to 3.62) 597.89 (62.16 to 1493.69) 58.35 (<2.10 to 559.38)
IL-1α (pg/ml) 0.90 (0.90 to 2.52) 2.42 (1.01 to 3.53) 0.90 (0.90 to 1.01) 21.35 (5.80 to 30.93) 2.47 (0.90 to 81.00)
IL-1β (pg/ml) IQR below LOD IQR below LOD IQR below LOD 17.80 (5.46 to 78.87) <1.60 (<1.60 to 19.12)
PINK CLUSTER
IL-8 (pg/ml) 32.40 (7.93 to 265.83) 292.67 (117.33 to 604.33) 28.63 (7.90 to 135.33) 2,900 (2,064 to 2,900) 875.67 (48.40 to 2,900)
MMP9NGAL 0.09 (0.08 to 0.10) 0.16 (0.10 to 0.29) 0.07 (0.07 to 0.09) 0.29 (0.23 to 0.48) 0.23 (0.09 to 0.29)
IL-4 (pg/ml) IQR below LOD IQR below LOD IQR below LOD <6.60 (<6.60 to 6.80) IQR below LOD
sTNFR2 (pg/ml) IQR below LOD <0.15 (<0.15 to 0.26) <0.15 (<0.15 to 0.26) IQR below LOD <0.15 (<0.15 to 0.61)
BLUE CLUSTER
creatinine (µmol/L) 9,608 (7,961 to 13,360) 5,605 (4,454 to 11,945) 7,115 (3,868 (12,595) 7,600 (5,360 to 8,625) 14,087 (12,405 to 17,245)
osmolarity (mOsm) 536 (450 to 741) 462 (276 to 560) 526 (278 to 675) 404 (314 to 482) 644 (567 to 7,840)
TM (ng/ml)blue 4.08 (3.19 to 4.97) 3.97 (1.55 to 5.69) 4.00 (1.74 to 5.68) 3.49 (2.65 to 4.00) 6.30 (5.34 to 8.86)
YELLOW CLUSTER
IL-2 (pg/ml) 5.61 (5.21 to 5.92) 5.24 (5.02 to 5.65) 5.45 (5.20 to 6.27) 6.89 (5.99 to 7.24) 5.99 (5.65 to 7.20)
CEA (ng/ml) 1.57 (1.16 to 2.58) 1.59 (1.15 to 3.23) 1.36 (0.87 to 2.10) 1.77 (1.30 to 2.39) 1.37 (0.89 to 2.80)
HA (ng/ml) 685 (439 to 866) 835 (595 to 1005) 594 (282 to 900) 1,569 (1,143 to 1,846) 1,258 (883 to 1,712)
FPSA (ng/ml) 0.09 (0.04 to 0.21) 0.05 (0.04 to 0.23) 0.07 (0.04 to 0.12) 0.13 (0.07 to 0.30) 0.05 (0.04 to 0.10)
BTA (U/ml) 8.52 (2.57 to 38.96) 248.01 (206.82 to 394.15) 6.27 (1.21 to 17.92) 278.41 (226.40 to 504.33) 213.00 (15.24 to 476 .28)
VEGF (ng/ml) 88 (37 to 271) 96 (76 to 220) 78 (38 to 122) 1,266 (414 to 1,500) 253 (79 to 621)
FAS (pg/ml) 64 (42 to 96) 83 (60 to 128) 56 (37 to 86) 214 (106 to 475) 200 (96 to 279)
  1. The median level and the inter-quartile range (IQR) of each biomarker in each patient cluster are shown. The biomarkers are grouped vertically to reflect how they appear in the biomarker cluster dendrogram (Figure 3). BTA, bladder tumor antigen; CEA, carcino-embryonic antigen; CK18, cytokeratin 18; CRP, C-reactive protein; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FPSA, free prostate specific antigen; HA, hyaluronidase; IL, interleukin; LOD, limit of detection; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase 9; NGAL, neutrophil-associated gelatinase lipocalin; NSE, neuron specific enolase; sTNFR1, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; sTNFR2, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2; TM, thrombomodulin; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; vWF, Von Willeband factor.