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Table 3 Overview of studies comparing biological dysregulations across melancholic and atypical depression

From: Understanding the somatic consequences of depression: biological mechanisms and the role of depression symptom profile

Reference Nr of melancholic depression Nr of atypical depression Nr of controls Summary of findings
Metabolic dysregulation
Lamers et al. 2010 [115] 379 201 - AD more MetS than MD
Seppala et al. 2012 [53] 293 1391 2,388 AD more MetS than C, no association with MD
Immuno-inflammatory dysregulation
Anisman et al. 1999 [123] 17 31 27 No difference in IL-1b + IL-2
Kaestner et al. 2005 [124] 21 161 37 AD higher IL-1b + IL-1RA than C + MD
Huang et al. 2007 [125] 25 171 40 MD higher IL-1b than AD no difference in IL-10 and TNF-α
Yoon et al. 2012 [126] 70 35 - AD higher IL-2 and lower IL-4 than MD no differences in IL-6 + TNF-α
Lamers et al. 2012 [127] 111 122 543 AD higher IL-6 + CRP + TNF-α than MD + C
Karlovic et al. 2012 [128] 32 23 18 MD + AD higher IL-6 + CRP than C no difference in TNF-α
HPA-axis dysregulation
Nelson et al. 1997 [110] 662 6171 - MD more DST non-suppression than AD
Anisman et al. 1999 [123] 17 31 27 AD lower cortisol than C
Wong et al. 2000 [129] 10 - 14 MD higher cortisol than C
Kaestner et al. 2005 [124] 21 161 37 MD higher cortisol than AD + C
Lamers et al. 2012 [127] 66 82 393 MD higher cortisol than AD + C
Karlovic et al. 2012 [128] 32 23 18 MD higher cortisol than AD + C
  1. 1 Atypical depression was assessed as the absence of melancholic depression (non-melancholic depression).
  2. AD, Atypical depression; C, Healthy controls; CRP, C-reactive protein; DST, Dexamethasone suppression test; IL, Interleukin; MD, Melancholic depression; MetS, Metabolic syndrome; TNF, Tumor necrosis factor.