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Table 2 Factors that may affect the differential drug response of patients ofAfrican ancestry

From: Why do hypertensive patients of African ancestry respond better to calciumblockers and diuretics than to ACE inhibitors and β-adrenergic blockers? Asystematic review

Category Factors
Environmental Diet (sodium) [2]
Bioavailability Absorption, First pass metabolism (intestinal and phase 1 drugmetabolism, polymorphisms cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase 2 drugmetabolism) [6, 9]
Distribution Protein binding, distribution volume
Receptor Receptor sensitivity and genetic variation [6, 9]
Hemodynamics Low renin, sodium-volume dependent hypertension [2]
Intracellular effects Nitric oxide, cGMP, cAMP, calcium fluxes, ion transport, rhokinase, creatine kinase, myosin light chain kinase, myosinATPase [1012]
Elimination Kidney, liver or other route