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Table 2 Predictors of early and late mortality in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adapted from Singanayagam et al .[24])

From: Admission prevention in COPD: non-pharmacological management

Predictors of short-term mortality (up to 90 days after hospitalization) Predictors of long-term mortality (up to 2 years after hospitalization)
Age Age
Male sex Low body mass index
Low body mass index Cardiac failure
Cardiac failure Diabetes mellitus
Chronic renal failure Ischemic heart disease
Confusion Malignancy
Long-term oxygen therapy FEV1
Lower limb edema Long-term oxygen therapy
GOLD stage 4 disease PaO2 on admission
Cor pulmonale  
Raised plasma troponin level  
  1. Abbreviations: GOLD Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, P a O 2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood.