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Table 2 Prevalence and odds ratios for physical health comorbidity, standardised by age and gender

From: Multimorbidity in bipolar disorder and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease: a cross sectional study

Variable Bipolar, n (%) Not bipolar, n (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) (Pvalue)
No physical condition 929 (36.0) 799,179 (56.2) 0.59 (0.54 to 0.63) (P <0.001)
One physical condition 662 (25.6) 292,651 (20.6) 1.27 (1.16 to 1.39) (P <0.001)
Two physical comorbidities 427 (16.5) 149,297 (10.5) 1.45 (1.30 to 1.62) (P <0.001)
Three or more physical comorbidities 564 (21.8) 180,669 (12.7) 1.44 (1.30 to 1.64) (P <0.001)
Individual conditions:    
Viral hepatitis 10 (0.4) 1,165 (0.1) 5.69 (3.22 to 10.01) (P <0.001)
Constipation 249 (9.4) 36,167 (2.5) 3.37 (2.93 to 3.88) (P <0.001)
Parkinson’s disease/Parkinsonism 19 (0.7) 2,722 (0.2) 3.05 (1.83 to 5.09) (P <0.001)
Chronic kidney disease 189 (7.3) 33,377 (2.4) 2.42 (2.04 to 2.86) (P <0.001)
Thyroid disorders 376 (14.6) 71,567 (5.0) 2.39 (2.11 to 2.70) (P <0.001)
Inflammatory bowel disease 27 (1.1) 9,724 (0.7) 1.99 (1.42 to 2.78) (P <0.001)
Epilepsy 47 (1.8) 12,337 (0.9) 1.98 (1.46 to 2.66) (P <0.001)
Pain 451 (17.5) 125,680 (8.8) 1.88 (1.69 to 2.09) (P <0.001)
Prostate disease 46 (1.8) 15,187 (1.1) 1.71 (1.28 to 2.29) (P <0.001)
Dyspepsia 237 (9.2) 78,967 (5.6) 1.63 (1.42 to 1.87) (P <0.001)
Blindness or low vision 30 (1.2) 8,348 (0.6) 1.58 (1.06 to 2.37) (P = 0.02)
Multiple sclerosis 16 (0.6) 3,831 (0.3) 1.58 (0.87 to 2.86) (P = 0.12)
Psoriasis or eczema 31 (1.2) 10,338 (0.7) 1.44 (0.98 to 2.10) (P = 0.06)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 169 (6.6) 52,938 (3.7) 1.39 (1.17 to 1.65) (P <0.001)
Irritable bowel syndrome 148 (5.7) 51,989 (3.7) 1.37 (1.14 to 1.64) (P <0.001)
Diabetes 218 (8.4) 74,613 (5.3) 1.31 (1.13 to 1.53) (P <0.001)
Liver disease 6 (0.2) 2,608 (0.2) 1.26 (0.56 to 2.82) (P = 0.56)
Cancer 115 (4.5) 43,549 (3.1) 1.23 (1.00 to 1.54) (P = 0.04)
Hearing loss 134 (5.2) 54,600 (3.8) 1.18 (0.98 to 1.43) (P = 0.07)
Peripheral vascular disease 59 (2.3) 23,181 (1.6) 1.18 (0.93 to 1.56) (P = 0.22)
Asthma 179 (6.9) 83,809 (5.9) 1.16 (0.99 to 1.35) (P = 0.06)
Heart failure 47 (1.8) 18,852 (1.3) 1.11 (0.80 to 1.53) (P = 0.51)
Diverticular disease 89 (3.5) 33,724 (2.4) 1.11 (0.87 to 1.41) (P = 0.38)
Stroke and transient ischaemic attack 89 (3.5) 36,456 (2.6) 1.05 (0.84 to 1.34) (P = 0.63)
Inflammatory arthritis and related conditions 119 (4.6) 57,889 (4.1) 0.95 (0.78 to 1.17) (P = 0.67)
Coronary heart disease 170 (6.6) 81,297 (5.7) 0.94 (0.79 to 1.12) (P = 0.51)
Chronic sinusitis 17 (0.7) 9,148 (0.6) 0.90 (0.54 to 1.49) (P = 0.69)
Migraine 18 (0.7) 9,233 (0.7) 0.89 (0.54 to 1.49) (P = 0.67)
Hypertension 462 (17.9) 233,852 (16.5) 0.82 (0.73 to 0.92) (P <0.001)
Glaucoma 28 (1.1) 15,891 (1.2) 0.82 (0.55 to 1.24) (P = 0.36)
Atrial fibrillation 39 (1.4) 23,937 (1.7) 0.68 (0.45 to 0.94) (P = 0.02)
Bronchiectasis 5 (0.2) 2,809 (0.2) 0.78 (0.29 to 2.08) (P = 0.62)