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Table 3 Studies examining alterations in the expression of genes involved in neuroplasticity

From: Depression pathogenesis and treatment: what can we learn from blood mRNA expression?

Citation Type of study Sample Gene Clinical assessments Main findings
Pandey et al. 2010 [45] Case-control 25 adult MDD
25 adult controls
14 pediatric MDD
14 pediatric controls
BDNF Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HDRS
CARS-M
CDRS
YMRS
Lower expression of BDNF in both adult and pediatric patients with MDD compared with controls.
Lower protein levels of BDNF in both adult and pediatric patients with MDD compared with controls.
Cattaneo et al. 2010a [46] Case-control and follow up 21 MDD
23 Controls
BDNF Diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria
MADRS
Lower expression of BDNF in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Significant increase in expression of BDNF after escitalopram treatment as well as symptom improvement.
Cattaneo et al. 2010b [48] Case-control and follow up 25 MDD
25 Controls
VGF Diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria
MADRS
Lower expression of VGF in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Significant increase in expression of VGF after 12 weeks of escitalopram treatment in responders only.
Cattaneo et al. 2012 [23] Case-control and follow up 74 MDD
34 Controls
BDNF
VGF
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria
SCAN
Lower expression of BDNF and VGF in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Significant increase in BDNF and VGF expression after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment (escitalopram or nortriptyline) in responders only.
Otsuki et al. 2008 [49] Case-control 60 MDD
42 BPD
28 Controls
BDNF
NGF
NT-3
NT-4
GDNF
ARTN
NRTN
PSPN
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HDRS
Lower expression of GDNF, ARTN and NT-3 in patients with MDD in a current depressive state compared with those in remission and controls.
No significant difference in expression of GDNF, ARTN or NT-3 in patients with BPD.
No significant difference in expression levels of BDNF, NGF or NT-3 among the three groups.
Su et al. 2009 [54] Case-control 16 MDD
14 Controls
p11 Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
MINI
HAM-D
HARS
Higher expression of p11 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Zhang et al. 2011 [55] Case-control 38 BPD
14 Controls
p11 Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
MINI
HDRS-17
YMRS
Higher expression of p11 in patients with BPD compared with controls.
Iga et al. 2007 [57] Case-control 42 MDD
32 Controls
VEGF Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
SIGH-D 17
Higher expression of VEGF in patients with MDD compared to controls.
Dome et al. 2009 [58] Case-control 33 MDD
16 Controls
CD34
CD133
VEGFR2
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
BDI
Lower expression of VEGFR2 and CD133 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Expression of VEGFR2 and CD133 correlated negatively with BDI scores.
Anitha et al. 2008 [59] Case-control 33 MDD
21 BPD
57 Controls
PCNT2 Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
BPRS
HAM-D
Higher expression of PCNT2 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Higher expression of PCNT2 in patients with BPD in a remission state compared with controls.
Nakataki et al. 2011 [60] Case-control 27 MDD
27 Controls
EMP1 Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HAM-D
Lower expression of EMP1 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
A trend increase in expression of EMP1 after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment
Wakabayashi et al. 2008 [64] Case-control 60 MDD
42 BPD
28 Controls
NCAM-140
L1
VCAM-1
ICAM-1
E-cadherin
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HDRS
Lower expression of NCAM-140 in patients with BPD in a current depressive state, but not in a remissive state, compared with controls and patients with MDD.
Higher expression of L1 in patients with BPD in a current depressive state, but not in a remissive state, compared with controls and patients with MDD.
No significant differences in expression of NCAM-140 or L1 in patients with MDD compared with controls.
No significant differences in expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 or E-cadherin in patients with MDD or BPD in a current depressive state compared to controls.
Otsuki et al. 2010 [68] Case-control 60 MDD
46 BPD
28 Controls
REST
CRH
5-HT1A
Adcy5
CaMKIIa
Epor
IGF1R
Tnfsf10
Tnfsf11
Tnfsf12-12
Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria
HDRS
Lower expression of REST in patients with MDD compared with controls.
Higher expression of CRH, Adcy5 and Tnfsf12-13 in patients with MDD in a current depressive state compared with those in a remissive state.
No significant difference in expression of REST or any other mRNAs in patients with BPD compared with controls.
  1. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; BPD: bipolar disorder; CARS-M: Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania; CDRS: Children Depression Rating Scale; DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition; HAM-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HARS: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; HDRS: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases - 10th revision; MADRS: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MDD: major depressive disorder; MINI: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; SIGH-D-17: Structure Interview Guide for the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; YMRS: Young Mania Rating Scale.